Male t

Conclusion: 1:1 sex ratio is produced.

I 4.5 Inheritance of sex in organisms with X and Y chromosomes results in equal numbers of male and female offspring.

cells of males and females but saw that one chromosome pair was different: two X chromosomes were found in female cells, whereas a single X chromosome plus a smaller chromosome, which they called Y, was found in male cells.

Stevens and Wilson also showed that the X and Y chromosomes separate into different cells in sperm formation; half of the sperm receive an X chromosome and half receive a Y. All egg cells produced by the female in meiosis receive one X chromosome. A sperm containing a Y chromosome unites with an X-bearing egg to produce an XY male, whereas a sperm containing an X chromosome unites with an X-bearing egg to produce an XX female ( FIGURE 4.5). This accounts for the 50:50 sex ratio observed in most dioecious organisms. Because sex is inherited like other genetically determined characteristics, Stevens and Wilson's discovery that sex was associated with the inheritance of a particular chromosome also demonstrated that genes are on chromosomes.

As Stevens and Wilson found for insects, sex is frequently determined by a pair of chromosomes, the sex chromosomes, which differ between males and females. The nonsex chromosomes, which are the same for males and females, are called autosomes. We think of sex in these organisms as being determined by the presence of the sex chromosomes, but in fact the individual genes located on the sex chromosomes are usually responsible for the sexual phenotypes.

XX-XO sex determination The mechanism of sex determination in the grasshoppers studied by McClung is one of the simplest mechanisms of chromosomal sex determination and is called the XX-XO system. In this system, females have two X chromosomes (XX), and males possess a single X chromosome (XO). There is no O chromosome; the letter O signifies the absence of a sex chromosome.

In meiosis in females, the two X chromosomes pair and then separate, with one X chromosome entering each haploid egg. In males, the single X chromosome segregates in meiosis to half the sperm cells—the other half receive no sex chromosome. Because males produce two different types of gametes with respect to the sex chromosomes, they are said to be the heterogametic sex. Females, which produce gametes that are all the same with respect to the sex chromosomes, are the homogametic sex. In the XX-XO system, the sex of an individual is therefore determined by which type of male gamete fertilizes the egg. X-bearing sperm unite with X-bear-ing eggs to produce XX zygotes, which eventually develop as females. Sperm lacking an X chromosome unite with X-bear-ing eggs to produce XO zygotes, which develop into males.

XX-XY sex determination In many species, the cells of males and females have the same number of chromosomes, but the cells of females have two X chromosomes (XX) and the cells of males have a single X chromosome and a smaller sex chromosome called the Y chromosome (XY). In humans and many other organisms, the Y chromosome is acrocentric ( FIGURE 4.6), not Y shaped as is commonly assumed. In this type of sex-determining system, the male is the heterogametic sex—half of his gametes have an X chromosome and half have a Y chromosome. The female is the

Primary pseudoautosomal region

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