X

Sex chromosomes

I 4.9 The chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster (2n = 8) consist of three pairs of autosomes (labelled I, II, and III) and one pair of sex chromosomes (labelled X and Y).

An X:A ratio of 1.0 produces a female fly; an X:A ratio of 0.5 produces a male. If the X:A ratio is less than 0.5, a male phenotype is produced, but the fly is weak and sterile — such flies are sometimes called metamales. An X:A ratio between 1.0 and 0.50 produces an intersex fly, with a mixture of male and female characteristics. If the X:A ratio is greater than 1.0, a female phenotype is produced, but these flies (called metafemales) have serious developmental problems and many never emerge from the pupal case. Table 4.1 presents some different chromosome complements in Drosophila and their associated sexual phe-notypes. Flies with two sets of autosomes and XXY sex chromosomes (an X:A ratio of 1.0) develop as fully fertile females, in spite of the presence of a Y chromosome. Flies with only a single X (an X:A ratio of 0.5), develop as males, although they are sterile. These observations confirm that the Y chromosome does not determine sex in Drosophila.

Mutations in genes that affect sexual phenotype in Drosophila have been isolated. For example, the transformer mutation converts a female with an X:A ratio of 1.0 into a phenotypic male, whereas the doublesex mutation transforms normal males and females into flies with intersex phenotypes. Environmental factors, such as the temperature of the rearing conditions, also can affect the development of sexual characteristics.

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