4 X 3 X 2 X 1 2 X 1 X 3 X 2 X

This value is the same as that obtained with the binomial expansion.

The Testcross

A useful tool for analyzing genetic crosses is the testcross, in which one individual of unknown genotype is crossed with another individual with a homozygous recessive genotype for the trait in question. Figure 3.6 illustrates a test-cross (as well as a backcross). A testcross tests, or reveals, the genotype of the first individual.

Suppose you were given a tall pea plant with no information about its parents. Because tallness is a dominant trait in peas, your plant could be either homozygous (TT) or heterozygous (Tt), but you would not know which. You could determine its genotype by performing a testcross. If the plant were homozygous (TT), a testcross would produce all tall progeny (TT X tt : all Tt); if the plant were heterozygous (Tt), the testcross would produce half tall progeny and half short progeny (Tt X tt : 1/2 Tt and 1/2 tt). When a testcross is performed, any recessive allele in the unknown genotype is expressed in the progeny, because it will be paired with a recessive allele from the homozygous recessive parent.


The bionomial expansion may be used to determine the probability of a particular set of of events. A testcross is a cross between an individual with an unknown genotype and one with a homozygous recessive genotype. The outcome of the testcross can reveal the unknown genotype.

Incomplete Dominance

The seven characters in pea plants that Mendel chose to study extensively all exhibited dominance, but Mendel did realize that not all characters have traits that exhibit dominance. He conducted some crosses concerning the length of time that pea plants take to flower. When he crossed two homozygous varieties that differed in their flowering time by an average of 20 days, the length of time taken by the F1 plants to flower was intermediate between those of n!

the two parents. When the heterozygote has a phenotype intermediate between the phenotypes of the two homozygotes, the trait is said to display incomplete dominance.

Incomplete dominance is also exhibited in the fruit color of eggplants. When a homozygous plant that produces purple fruit (PP) is crossed with a homozygous plant that produces white fruit (pp), all the heterozygous F1 (Pp) produce violet fruit (Figure 3.9a). When the F1 are crossed with each other, / of the F2 are purple (PP), 1/2 are violet (Pp), and /4 are white (pp), as shown in Figure 3.9b. This 1:2:1 ratio is different from the 3:1 ratio that we would observe if eggplant fruit color exhibited dominance. When a

P generation

Purple fruit Purple fruit x

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