Translational and Posttranslational Control

Ribosomes, aminoacyl tRNAs, initiation factors, and elongation factors are all required for the translation of mRNA molecules. The availability of these components affects the rate of translation and therefore influences gene expression. The initiation of translation in some mRNAs is regulated by proteins that bind to the mRNA's 5' UTR and inhibit the binding of ribosomes, similar to the way in which repressor proteins bind to operators and prevent the transcription of structural genes.

Many eukaryotic proteins are extensively modified after translation by the selective cleavage and trimming of amino acids from the ends, by acetylation, or by the addition of phosphates, carboxyl groups, methyl groups, and carbohydrates to the protein). These modifications affect the transport, function, and activity of the proteins and have the capacity to affect gene expression.

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