The Process of Translation

Now that we are familiar with the genetic code, we can begin to study the mechanism by which amino acids are assembled into proteins. Because more is known about translation in bacteria, we will focus primarily on bacterial translation. In most respects, eukaryotic translation is similar, although there are some significant differences that will be noted as we proceed through the stages of translation.

Translation takes place on ribosomes; indeed, ribo-somes can be thought of as moving protein-synthesizing machines. Through a variety of techniques, a detailed view of the structure of the ribosome has been produced in recent years, which has greatly improved our understanding of the translational process. A ribosome attaches near the 5' end of an mRNA strand and moves toward the 3' end, translating the codons as it goes (Figure 15.15). Synthesis

Polypeptide chain

mRNA

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