## Samples and Populations

Biologists frequently need to describe the distribution of phenotypes exhibited by some group of individuals. We might want to describe the height of students at the University of Texas (UT), but there are more than 40,000 students at UT, and measuring every one of them would be impractical. Scientists are constantly confronted with this problem: the group of interest, called the population, is too large for a complete census. One solution is to measure a smaller collection of individuals, called a sample, and use measurements made on the sample to describe the population.

To provide an accurate description of the population, a good sample must have several characteristics. First, it must be representative of the whole population. If our sample consisted entirely of members of the UT basketball team, for instance, we would probably overestimate the true height of the students. One way to ensure that a sample is representative of the population is to select the members of the sample randomly. Second, the sample must be large enough that chance differences between individuals in the sample and the overall population do not distort the estimate of the population measurements. If we measured only three students at UT and just by chance all three were short, we would underestimate the true height of the student population. Statistics can provide information about how much confidence to expect from estimates based on random samples.

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