Physical Chromosome Mapping

Genetic maps reveal the relative positions of genes on a chromosome on the basis of frequencies of crossing over, but they do not provide information that can allow us to place groups of linked genes on particular chromosomes. Furthermore, the units of a genetic map do not always precisely correspond to physical distances on the chromosome, because a number of factors other than physical distances between genes (such as the type and sex of the organism) can influence rates of crossing over. Because of these limitations, physical-mapping methods that do not rely on rates of crossing over have been developed.

Deletion Mapping

One method for determining the chromosomal location of a gene is deletion mapping. Special staining methods have been developed that make it possible to detect chromosome deletions, mutations in which a part of a chromosome is missing. Genes are assigned to regions of particular chromosomes by studying the association of a gene's phenotype or product and particular chromosome deletions.

In deletion mapping, an individual that is homozygous for a recessive mutation in the gene of interest is crossed with an individual that is heterozygous for a deletion (FIGURE 7.17). If the gene of interest is in the region of the chromosome represented by the deletion (the red part of chromosome in Figure 7.17), approximately half of the progeny will display the mutant phenotype (see Figure 7.17a). If the gene is not within the deleted region, all of the progeny will be wild type (see Figure 7.17b).

Deletion mapping has been used to reveal the chromosomal locations of a number of human genes. For example, n n n

A+a Wild type A+a Wild type

4 7.17 Deletion mapping can be used to determine the chromosomal location of a gene. An individual homozygous for a recessive mutation in the gene of interest (aa) is crossed with an individual heterozygous for a deletion.

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