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|The plasmid and the foreign DNA are cut by the same restriction enzyme—in this case, fcoRI.

Complementary sticky ends

| When mixed, the sticky ends anneal, joining the foreign DNA and plasmid.

| When mixed, the sticky ends anneal, joining the foreign DNA and plasmid.

| Nicks in the sugar-phosphate bonds are sealed by DNA ligase.

18.8 A foreign DNA fragment can be inserted into a plasmid with the use of (a) restriction cloning, (b) tailing, or (c) linkers.

Plasmid

Foreign DNA

The plasmid and the foreign DNA are cleaved by any restriction enzyme.

Sticky^ ends

^ If sticky ends are produced, these ends are removed by an enzyme that digests single-stranded DNA.

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