By collecting existing information about the chemistry of DNA and building molecular models, Watson and Crick were able to discover the three-dimensional structure of the DNA molecule.


www.whfreeman.com/pierce A commentary on Watson and Crick's original paper describing the structure of DNA and more information about some of the key players in the discovery of DNA

RNA As Genetic Material

In most organisms, DNA carries the genetic information. However, a few viruses utilize RNA, not DNA, as their genetic material. This fact was demonstrated in 1956 by Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat and Bea Singer, who worked with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a virus that infects and causes disease in tobacco plants. The tobacco mosaic virus possesses a single molecule of RNA surrounded by a helically arranged cylinder of protein molecules. Fraenkal-Conrat found that, after separating the RNA and protein of TMV, he could remix them and obtain intact, infectious viral particles.

With Singer, Fraenkal-Conrat then created hybrid viruses by mixing RNA and protein from different strains of TMV ( Figure 10.8). When these hybrid viruses infected tobacco leaves, new viral particles were produced. The new viral progeny were identical to the strain from which the RNA had been isolated and did not exhibit the characteristics of the strain that donated the protein. These results showed that RNA carries the genetic information in TMV.

Also in 1956, Alfred Gierer and Gerhard Schramm demonstrated that RNA isolated from TMV is sufficient to infect tobacco plants and direct the production of new TMV particles, confirming that RNA carries genetic instructions.

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