In XX-XO sex determination, the male is XO and heterogametic, and the female is XX and homogametic. In XX-XY sex determination, the male is XY and the female is XX; in this system the male is heterogametic. In ZZ-ZW sex determination, the female is ZW and the male is ZZ; in this system the female is the heterogametic sex.

Haplodiploidy Some insects in the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, and ants) have no sex chromosomes; instead, sex is based on the number of chromosome sets found in the nucleus of each cell. Males develop from unfertilized eggs, and females develop from fertilized eggs. The cells of male hymenopterans possess only a single set of chromosomes (they are haploid) inherited from the mother. In contrast, the cells of females possess two sets of chromosomes (they are diploid), one set inherited from the mother and the other set from the father ( FIGURE 4.7).

The haplodiploid method of sex determination produces some odd genetic relationships. When both parents are diploid, siblings on average have half their genes in common because they have a 50% chance of receiving the same allele from each parent. In these insects, males produce sperm by mitosis (they are already haploid); so all offspring receive the same set of paternal genes. The diploid females produce eggs by normal meiosis. Therefore, sisters have a 50% chance of

P generation




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