Initiation includes all the steps necessary to begin RNA synthesis, including (1) promoter recognition, (2) formation of the transcription bubble, (3) creation of the first bonds between rNTPs, and (4) escape of the transcription apparatus from the promoter.

Transcription initiation requires that the transcription apparatus recognize and bind to the promoter. At this step, the selectivity of transcription is enforced; the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter determines which parts of the DNA template are to be transcribed and how often.

Promoter a

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