10. Define natural selection and fitness.

11. Briefly discuss the differences between directional selection, overdominance, and underdominance. Describe the effect of each type of selection on the allelic frequencies of a population.

12. What factors affect the rate of change in allelic frequency due to natural selection?

*13. Compare and contrast the effects of mutation, migration, genetic drift, and natural selection on genetic variation within populations and on genetic divergence between populations.

14. Give some of the advantages of using molecular data in evolutionary studies.

*15. What is the key difference between the neutral-mutation hypothesis and the balance hypothesis?

16. Outline the different rates of evolution that are typically seen in different parts of a protein-encoding gene. What might account for these differences?

*17. What is the molecular clock?

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