thus, there are still eight DNA molecules present. After cytokinesis, the eight chromosomes (eight DNA molecules) are distributed equally between two cells; so each new cell contains four chromosomes and four DNA molecules, the number present at the beginning of the cell cycle.

Sexual Reproduction and Genetic Variation

If all reproduction were accomplished through the cell cycle, life would be quite dull, because mitosis produces only genetically identical progeny. With only mitosis, you, your children, your parents, your brothers and sisters, your cousins, and many people you didn't even know would be clones — copies of one another. Only the occasional mutation would introduce any genetic variability. This is how all organisms reproduced for the first 2 billion years of Earth's existence (and the way in which some organisms still reproduce today). Then, some 1.5 billion to 2 billion years ago, something remarkable evolved: cells that produce genetically variable offspring through sexual reproduction.

The evolution of sexual reproduction is one of the most significant events in the history of life. As will be discussed in Chapters 22 and 23, the pace of evolution depends on the amount of genetic variation present. By shuffling the genetic information from two parents, sexual reproduction greatly increases the amount of genetic variation and allows for accelerated evolution. Most of the tremendous diversity of life on Earth is a direct result of sexual reproduction.

Sexual reproduction consists of two processes. The first is meiosis, which leads to gametes in which chromosome number is reduced by half. The second process is fertilization, in which two haploid gametes fuse and restore chromosome number to its original diploid value.


The words mitosis and meiosis are sometimes confused. They sound a bit alike, and both include chromosome division and cytokinesis. Don't let this deceive you. The outcomes of mitosis and meiosis are radically different, and several unique events that have important genetic consequences take place only in meiosis.

How is meiosis different from mitosis? Mitosis consists of a single nuclear division and is usually accompanied by a single cell division. Meiosis, on the other hand, consists of two divisions. After mitosis, chromosome number in newly formed cells is the same as that in the original cell, whereas meiosis causes chromosome number in the newly formed cells to be reduced by half. Finally, mitosis produces genetically identical cells, whereas meiosis produces genetically variable cells. Let's see how these differences arise.

Like mitosis, meiosis is preceded by an interphase stage that includes G1, S, and G2 phases. Meiosis consists of two distinct phases: meiosis I and meiosis II, each of which

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