The mean is calculated by using the following formula: x = Xxi /n. The value of Xxi is obtained by summing all the individual measurements, which equals 582; n is the total number of measurements, which equals 10; so x = (582/10) = 58.20, or 58,200 pounds per year.

The variance is calculated by using the following formula:

so we need to determine the deviation of each individual measurement from the mean (xi — x), square each value, and sum the squared deviations from the mean.

Annual milk production

Standard

Annual milk production

Standard

(hundreds of pounds) |
Variance |
deviation |

x |
xi — x |
(Xi — X)2 |

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