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After the means have been calculated, the deviations of each value from the means are computed; these deviations are shown in columns B and E of the table. The deviations are then squared (columns C and F) and summed (last row of columns C and F). Next, the products of the deviation of the x values and the deviation of the y values [(xi — X) (yi — y) ] are calculated; these products are shown in column G, and their sum is shown in the last row of column G.

To calculate the covariance, we use Formula 22.6:

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