The calculated chi-square value is 7.17; to obtain the probability associated with this chi-square value, we determine the appropriate degrees of freedom.

Up to this point, the chi-square test for assessing Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium has been identical with the chi-square tests that we used in Chapter 3 to assess progeny ratios in a genetic cross, where the degrees of freedom were n — 1 and n equaled the number of expected genotypes. For the Hardy-Weinberg test, however, we must subtract an additional degree of freedom, because the expected numbers are based on the observed allelic frequencies; therefore, the observed numbers are not completely free to vary. In general, the degrees of freedom for a chi-square test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equal the number of expected genotypic classes minus the number of associated alleles. For this particular Hardy-Weinberg test, the degrees of freedom are 3 —2 = 1.

Once we have calculated both the chi-square value and degrees of freedom, the probability associated with this value can be sought in a chi-square table (Table 3.4). With one degree of freedom, a chi-square value of 7.17 has a probability between .01 and .001. It is very unlikely that the peroxidase genotypes observed at Glacier Lake are in Hardy-Weinberg proportions.

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