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(b) Examine in more detail the genes at the tip of the short arm of the Y chromosome by clicking on the top bar in the histogram of genes. A more detailed view will be shown. What known genes are found in this region? How many novel genes are there in this region? *30. Some researchers have proposed creating an entirely new, free-living organism with a minimal genome, the smallest set of genes that allows for replication of the organism in a particular environment. This organism could be used to design and create, from "scratch," novel organisms that might perform specific tasks such as the breakdown of toxic materials in the environment.

(a) How might the minimal genome required for life be determined?

(b) What, if any, social and ethical concerns might be associated with the creation of novel organisms by constructing an entirely new organism with a minimal genome?

31. What are some of the major differences between the ways in which genetic information is organized in the genomes of prokaryotes versus eukaryotes?

32. How do the following genomic features of prokaryotic organisms compare with those of eukaryotic organisms? How do they compare among eukaryotes?

(a) Genome size

(b) Number of genes

(e) Number of exons

SUGGESTED READINGS]_

Adams, M. D., S. E. Celniker, R. A. Holt, C. A. Evans, J. D. Gocayne, et al. 2000. The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster. Science 287:2185-2195.

Report of the complete sequence of Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly.

Arabidopsis Genome Initiative. 2000. Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature 408:796-815.

Analysis of the complete genome of the first plant genome to be published.

C. elegans Sequencing Consortium. 1998. Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans: a platform for investigating biology. Science 282: 2012-2018.

Report of the sequence and analysis of the genome of C. elegans, the roundworm.

Choe, M. K., D. Magnus, A. L. Caplan, D. McGee, and the Ethics of Genomics Group. 1999. Ethical considerations in synthesizing a minimal genome. Science 286:2087-2090. A discussion of some of the ethical implications of creating novel organisms by constructing a minimal genome.

Cole, S. T., K. Eiglmeier, J. Parkhill, K. D. James, N. R. Thomson, et al. 2001. Massive gene decay in the leprosy bacillus. Nature 409:1007-1011.

Report of the genomic sequence of Mycobacterium leprae, the bacterium that causes leprosy.

Davies, K. 2001. Cracking the Genome: Inside the Race to Unlock Human DNA. New York: Simon & Schuster. A very readable account of the history of the human genome project, placed within the context of advances in molecular biology.

Dean, P. M., E. D. Zanders, and D. S. Bailey. 2001. Industrial-scale genomics-based drug design and discovery. Trends in Biotechnology 19:288-292.

A review of the effect of genomics on drug discovery and design.

Eisenberg, D., E. M. Marcotte, I. Xenarios, and T. O. Yeates. 2000. Protein function in the post-genomic era. Nature 405:823-826. A review of how protein function can be inferred from DNA sequence data.

Fraser, C. M., J. Eisen, R. D. Fleischmann, K. A. Ketchum, and S. Peterson. 2001. Comparative genomics and understanding of microbial biology. Emerging Infectious Diseases 6:505 -512. An excellent overview of what has been learned from whole-genome sequences of prokaryotic organisms.

Howard, K. 2000. The bioinformatics gold rush. Scientific American 283(1):58-63.

A good overview of bioinformatics and its economic potential. In the same issue, see articles on "The human genome business today" and "Beyond the human genome."

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. 2001. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409:860-921.

A report from the public consortium on its version of the human genome sequence. Many articles in this issue of Nature report on various aspects of the human genome.

International SNP Map Working Group. 2001. A map of human genome sequence variation containing 1.42 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Nature 409:928 -933. A report on mapping single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human genome.

Knight, J. 2001. When the chips are down. Nature 410:860-861. News story about progress in using DNA chips to monitor gene expression. Mewes, H. W., K. Albermann, M. Bahr, D. Frishman, A. Gleissner, J. Hani, K. Heumann, K. Kleine, A. Maierl, S. G. Oliver, F. Pfeiffer, and A. Zollner. 1997. Overview of the yeast genome. Nature 387:7-8.

A broad look at the yeast genome and what can be learned from its sequence.

Rosamond, J., and A. Allsop. 2000. Harnessing the power of the genome in the search for new antibiotics. Science 287:1973-1976.

Describes how genomic sequences can be useful in the search for new drugs.

Rubin, G. M., M. D. Yandell, J. R. Wortman, G. L. G. Miklos, C. R. Nelson, I. K. Hariharan, et al. 2000. Comparative genomics of the eukaryotes. Science 287:2204-2215. An analysis of the proteins encoded by the genomes of fly, worm, and yeast.

Sander, C. 2000. Genomic medicine and the future of health care. Science 287:1977-1978.

A discussion of the effect of genomics on the future of medicine.

Venter, J. C., M. D. Adams, E. W. Myers, P. W. Li, R. J. Mural, et al. 2001. The sequence of the human genome. Science 291:1304-1351.

An analysis of the private draft of the human genome sequence. Much of this issue of Science reports on the human genome sequence and its analysis.

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