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Source: C. Muir etal., Cancer incidence in Five Continents, vol. 5 (Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1987), Table 12-2.

*The incidence rate is the age-standardized rate in males per 100,000 population.

Source: C. Muir etal., Cancer incidence in Five Continents, vol. 5 (Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1987), Table 12-2.

*The incidence rate is the age-standardized rate in males per 100,000 population.

viruses were subsequently isolated from various animal tissues. These viruses were generally assumed to carry a cancer-causing gene that was transferred to the host cell. The first oncogene, called src, was isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus in 1970.

In 1975, Michael Bishop, Harold Varmus, and their colleagues began to use probes for viral oncogenes to search for related sequences in normal cells. They discovered that the genomes of all normal cells carry DNA sequences that are closely related to viral oncogenes. These cellular genes are called proto-oncogenes. They are responsible for basic cellular functions in normal cells but, when mutated, they become oncogenes that contribute to the development of cancer. When a virus infects a cell, a proto-oncogene may

(a) Oncogenes

(b) Tumor-suppressor genes

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