Fourth mutation

Malignant cell

^ A fourth mutation causes the cell to divide uncontrollably and invade other tissues.

121.23 Through clonal evolution, tumor cells acquire multiple mutations that allow them to become increasingly aggressive and proliferative.

duplicating some genes (those on extra chromosomes) and eliminating others (those on deleted chromosomes). Cellular defects that interfere with chromosome separation increase aneuploidy and therefore may accelerate cancer progression.

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