## Genetic Variation

An obvious and pervasive feature of life is variability. Consider a group of students in a typical college class, the members of which vary in eye color, hair color, skin pigmentation, height, weight, facial features, blood type, and susceptibility to numerous diseases and disorders. No two students in the class are likely to be even remotely similar in appearance (< Figure 23.2a).

Humans are not unique in their extensive variability; almost all organisms exhibit variation in phenotype. For instance, lady beetles are highly variable in their patterns of spots (< Figure 23.2b), mice vary in body size, snails have different numbers of stripes on their shells, and plants vary in their susceptibility to pests. Much of this phenotypic variation is hereditary. Recognition of the extent of pheno-typic variation and its genetic basis led Charles Darwin to the idea of evolution through natural selection.

In fact, even more genetic variation exists in populations than is visible in the phenotype. Much variation exists at the molecular level owing to the redundancy of the genetic code, which allows different codons to specify the same amino acids. Thus two individuals can produce the same protein even if their DNA sequences are different. DNA sequences between the genes and introns within genes do not encode proteins; so much of the variation in these sequences also has little effect on the phenotype.

The amount of genetic variation within natural populations and the forces that limit and shape it are of primary interest to population geneticists. Genetic variation is the basis of all evolution, and the extent of genetic variation within a population affects its potential to adapt to environmental change.

An important, but frequently misunderstood, tool used in population genetics is the mathematical model. Let's take a moment to consider what a model is and how it can be used. A mathematical model usually describes a process in terms of an equation. Factors that may influence the process are represented by variables in the equation; the equation defines the way in which the variables influence the process. Most models are simplified representations of a process, because it is impossible to simultaneously consider all of the influencing factors; some must be ignored in order to examine the effects of others. At first, a model might consider only one or a few factors, but, after their effects are understood, the model can be improved by the addition of

4 23.2 All organisms exhibit genetic variation.

(a) Extensive variation among humans. (b) Variation in spotting patterns of Asian lady beetles. (Part a, Paul Warner/AP)

4 23.2 All organisms exhibit genetic variation.

(a) Extensive variation among humans. (b) Variation in spotting patterns of Asian lady beetles. (Part a, Paul Warner/AP)

more details. It is important to realize that even a simple model can be a source of valuable insight into how a process is influenced by key variables.