The identification and cloning of many important disease-causing human genes has allowed the development of probes for detecting disease-causing mutations. Prenatal testing is already available for several hundred genetic disorders (see Chapter 4). Additionally, presymptomatic genetic tests for adults and children are available for an increasing number of disorders.
The growing availability of genetic tests raises a number of ethical and social issues. For example, is it ethical to test for genetic diseases for which there is no cure or treatment? Huntington disease, an autosomal dominant disorder that appears in middle age, causes slow physical and mental deterioration and eventually death. No effective treatment is currently available. If one parent is affected, a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the gene for Huntington disease and eventually getting the disorder. Tests are now available that make it possible to determine whether a person carries the Huntington-disease gene, but is it beneficial to tell a young person that he or she has the Huntington-disease gene and will get the disease later in life?
Although learning that you do not have the gene might provide great peace of mind, learning that you do have it might lead to despair and depression. Many people at risk for Huntington disease want predictive testing, saying that the uncertainty of not knowing is more debilitating than the certain knowledge that they will get it and, in fact, a number of medical centers now offer predictive testing for Huntington disease. A few people who learned that they have the gene have committed suicide, and others had to be hospitalized for depression, but the results of several studies indicate that most people who undergo predictive testing for Huntington disease are able to cope with the information.
Other ethical and legal questions concern the confidentiality of test results. Who should have access to the results of genetic testing? Should insurance companies be allowed to use results from such tests to deny coverage to healthy people who are at risk for genetic diseases? Should relatives who also might be at risk be informed of the results of genetic testing?
Other concerns focus on whether the cost of genetic testing justifies the benefits. In some cases, genetic tests provide clear benefits because early identification allows for
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