After cleavage, the RNA is degraded.

^ .which methylate cytosine bases in the DNA, affecting transcription.


Conclusion: siRNAs produced from double-stranded RNA molecules affect gene expression.

the nucleus, siRNAs serve as guides for the methylation of complementary sequences in DNA, which then affects transcription. Some related RNA molecules produced through the cleavage of double-stranded RNA bind to complementary sequences in the 3' UTR of mRNA and inhibit their translation.

RNA silencing is thought to have evolved as a defense against RNA viruses and transposable elements that move through an RNA intermediate (see Chapter 20). The extent to which it contributes to normal gene regulation is uncertain, but dramatic phenotypic effects result from some mutations that occur in the enzymes that carry out RNA silencing.

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