Connecting Concepts Across Chapters 9

In this chapter, our perspective has shifted from individual genotypes (emphasized in transmission genetics) and the physical nature of the gene (emphasized in molecular genetics) to the genetic properties of groups of individuals. This shift will also be our perspective in Chapter 23, on population genetics.

Many of the most important characteristics in nature are those that display complex phenotypes and vary continuously. Body weight, reproductive output, susceptibility to diseases, and behavioral attributes often have continuous phenotypes. These types of characteristics are important in agriculture and are frequently significant in human health and evolution. An important theme of this chapter has been that such complex characteristics are inherited according to Mendelian principles, but more genes take part and environmental factors modify the phenotype. Because many factors influence the phenotypes of these complex characteristics, individual genes are difficult to identify, and we cannot predict precise phenotypic ratios among the offspring of a particular cross. Nevertheless, statistical procedures can be used to predict the average offspring phenotype and to assess the extent to which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for phenotypic differences in a characteristic.

Because the genes that influence quantitative characteristics are inherited according to Mendelian principles, the study of quantitative genetics requires a thorough understanding of the basic principles of heredity, which were covered in Chapters 3 through 7. Twin studies, which can be used to calculate heritability, are discussed in detail in Chapter 6; restriction fragment length polymorphisms and microsatellite variants, used to map quantitative trait loci, are explained in Chapter 18. The study of quantitative genetics depends on the genetic composition of populations and how that composition changes with time, which is the focus of Chapter 23.


• Quantitative genetics focuses on the inheritance of complex characteristics whose phenotype varies continuously. For many quantitative characteristics, the relation between genotype and phenotype is complex because many genes and environmental factors influence a characteristic.

• Quantitative characteristics also include meristic (counting) characteristics and threshold characteristics whose underlying genetic basis is influenced by multiple factors.

• Many quantitative characteristics are polygenic. The individual genes that influence a polygenic characteristic follow the same Mendelian principles that govern discontinuous characteristics, but, because many genes participate, the expected ratios of phenotypes are obscured.

• A population is the group of interest, and a sample is a subset of the population used to describe it.

• A frequency distribution, in which the phenotypes are represented on one axis and the number of individuals possessing the phenotype is represented on the other, is a convenient means of summarizing phenotypes found in a group of individuals.

• The mean and variance provide key information about a distribution: the mean gives the central location of the distribution, and the variance provides information about how the phenotype varies within a group.

• The correlation coefficient measures the direction and strength of association between two variables. Regression can be used to predict the value of one variable on the basis of the value of a correlated variable.

• Phenotypic variance in a characteristic can be divided into components that are due to additive genetic variance, dominance genetic variance, genic interaction variance, environmental variance, and genetic - environmental interaction variance.

• Broad-sense heritability is the proportion of the phenotypic variance that is due to genetic variance; narrow-sense heritability is the proportion of the phenotypic variance due to additive genetic variance.

• Broad-sense heritability can be estimated by eliminating the environmental variance component. Narrow-sense heritability can be estimated by comparing the phenotypes of parents and offspring or by comparing phenotypes of individuals with different degrees of relatedness, such as identical twins and nonidentical twins.

• Heritability provides information only about the degree to which variation in a characteristic results from genetic differences. It does not indicate the degree to which a characteristic is genetically determined. Heritability is based on the variances present within a group of individuals, and an individual does not have heritability. Heritability of a characteristic varies among populations and among environments. Even if heritability for a characteristic is high, the characteristic may still be altered by changes in the environment. Heritabilities provide no information about the nature of population differences in a characteristic.

• Quantitative trait loci are genes that control polygenic characteristics. QTLs can be mapped by examining the association between the inheritance of a quantitative characteristic and the inheritance of genetic markers. The mapping of numerous genetic markers with molecular techniques has made QTL mapping feasible for many organisms.

• When selection is applied to a quantitative characteristic, the characteristic will change if additive genetic variation for the characteristic is present. The amount that a quantitative characteristic changes in a single generation when subjected to selection (the response to selection) is directly related to the selection differential and narrow-sense heritability. By applying a selection differential and measuring the response to selection, narrow-sense heritability can calculated.

• After selection has been applied to a quantitative characteristic for a number of generations, the response to selection may level off because no additive genetic variation in the characteristic remains. Alternatively, the response to selection may level off because of genetic correlations between the selected trait and other traits that affect fitness.

• A genetic correlation may be present when the same gene affects two or more characteristics (pleiotropy). Genetic correlations produce correlated responses to selection.

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