RFLPs are variations in the pattern of fragments produced by restriction enzymes, which reveal variations in DNA sequences. They are used extensively in gene mapping. DNA fingerprinting detects genetic differences among people by using probes for highly variable regions of chromosomes.

Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee was established to oversee the safety of this work in the United States, and similar committees were established in Europe.

After years of experience with recombinant DNA experiments, the initial concerns about risks were turned out to be largely unfounded, and the NIH guidelines have now been significantly relaxed. Current controversy about recombinant DNA technology revolves largely around the release of genetically modified organisms into the environment and the application of recombinant DNA technology to humans.

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