Sex-influenced characteristics are traits encoded by autosomal genes that are more readily expressed in one sex. Sex-limited characteristics are encoded by autosomal genes whose expression is limited to one sex.

5.14 Sex-limited characteristics are inherited according to Mendel's principles. Precocious puberty is an autosomal dominant trait that is limited to males.

I 5.15 Cytoplasmically inherited characteristics frequently exhibit extensive phenotypic variation because cells and individual offspring contain various proportions of cytoplasmic genes.

Mitochondria that have wild-type mtDNA are shown in red; those having mutant mtDNA are shown in blue.

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