Recurrent mutation causes changes in the frequencies of alleles. At equilibrium, the allelic frequencies are determined by the forward and reverse mutation rates. Because mutation rates are low, the effect of mutation per generation is very small.

In Equation 23.16, we determined that ql equals qI(m) + qn(1 — m). Substituting this value for ql into the preceding equation, we get:

(a) Population I

(b) Population II

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