Concepts

Cancer is fundamentally a genetic disease. Mutations in several genes are usually required to produce cancer. If one of these mutations is inherited, fewer somatic mutations are necessary for cancer to develop, and the person may have a predisposition to cancer. Clonal evolution is the accumulation of mutations in a clone of cells.

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The role of environment in cancer Although cancer is fundamentally a genetic disease, most cancers are not inherited, and there is little doubt that many cancers are influenced by environmental factors. The role of environmental factors in cancer is suggested by differences in the incidence of specific cancers throughout the world (Table 21.7). The results of studies show that migrant populations typically take on the cancer incidence of their host country. For example, the overall rates of cancer are considerably lower in Japan than in Hawaii. However, within a single generation after migration to Hawaii, Japanese people develop cancer at rates similar to those of native Hawaiians. Smoking is a good example of an environmental factor that is strongly associated with cancer. Other environmental factors such as chemicals, ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation, and viruses are known carcinogens and are associated with variation in the incidence of many cancers.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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