Concepts

Expanding trinucleotide repeats are regions of DNA that consist of repeated copies of three nucleotides. Increased numbers of trinucleotide repeats are associated with several genetic diseases.

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Phenotypic effects of mutations Mutations have a variety of phenotypic effects. The effect of a mutation must be considered with reference to a phenotype against which the mutant can be compared, which is usually the wild-type phenotype—that is, the most common pheno-type in natural populations of the organism. For example, most Drosophila melanogaster in nature have red eyes; so

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