Expanding trinucleotide repeats are regions of DNA that consist of repeated copies of three nucleotides. Increased numbers of trinucleotide repeats are associated with several genetic diseases.


Phenotypic effects of mutations Mutations have a variety of phenotypic effects. The effect of a mutation must be considered with reference to a phenotype against which the mutant can be compared, which is usually the wild-type phenotype—that is, the most common pheno-type in natural populations of the organism. For example, most Drosophila melanogaster in nature have red eyes; so

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