Comprehension Questions

* 1. What three general characteristics must the genetic material possess?

2. Briefly outline the history of our knowledge of the structure of DNA until the time of Watson and Crick. Which do you think were the principle contributions and developments?

* 3. What experiments demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material?

4. What is transformation? How did Avery and his colleagues demonstrate that the transforming principle is DNA?

* 5. How did Hershey and Chase show that DNA is passed to new phages in phage reproduction?

6. Why was Watson and Crick's discovery so important?

* 7. Draw and label the three parts of a DNA nucleotide.

8. How does an RNA nucleotide differ from a DNA nucleotide?

9. How does a purine differ from a pyrimidine? What purines and pyrimidines are found in DNA and RNA?

*10. Draw a short segment of a single polynucleotide strand, including at least three nucleotides. Indicate the polarity of the strand by labeling the 5' end and the 3' end.

11. Which bases are capable of forming hydrogen bonds with each other?

*12. What is local variation in DNA structure and what causes it?

13. What are some of the important genetic implications of the DNA structure?

*14. What are the major transfers of genetic information?

15. What are hairpins and how do they form?

16. What is DNA methylation?

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