Comprehension Questions

1. What is the one gene, one enzyme hypothesis? Why was this hypothesis an important advance in our understanding of genetics?

2. What three different methods were used to help break the genetic code? What did each reveal and what were the advantages and disadvantages of each?

3. What are isoaccepting tRNAs?

4. What is the significance of the fact that many synonymous codons differ only in the third nucleotide position?

5. Define the following terms as they apply to the genetic code:

(a) reading frame (f) sense codon

(b) overlapping code (g) nonsense codon

(c) nonoverlapping code (h) universal code

(d) initiation codon (i) nonuniversal codons

(e) termination codon

6. How is the reading frame of a nucleotide sequence set?

7. How are tRNAs linked to their corresponding amino acids?

8. What role do the initiation factors play in protein synthesis?

9. How does the process of initiation differ in bacterial and eukaryotic cells?

10. Give the elongation factors used in bacterial translation and explain the role played by each factor in translation.

11. What events bring about the termination of translation?

12. Give several examples of RNA-RNA interactions that take place in protein synthesis.

13. What are some types of posttranslational modification of proteins?

14. Explain how some antibiotics work by affecting the process of protein synthesis.

15. Compare and contrast the process of protein synthesis in bacterial and eukaryotic cells, giving similarities and differences in the process of translation in these two types of cells.

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