Comprehension Questions

1. What is the concept of colinearity? In what way is this concept fulfilled in bacterial and eukaryotic cells?

2. What are some characteristics of introns?

3. What are the four basic types of introns? In which genes are they found?

4. What are the three principal elements in mRNA sequences in bacterial cells?

5. What is the function of the Shine-Dalgarno consensus sequence?

6. (a) What is the 5' cap? (b) How is the 5' cap added to eukaryotic pre-mRNA? (c) What is the function of the 5' cap?

7. How is the poly(A) tail added to pre-mRNA? What is the purpose of the poly(A) tail?

* 8. What makes up the spliceosome? What is the function of the spliceosome?

9. Explain the process of pre-mRNA splicing in nuclear genes.

10. Describe two types of alternative processing pathways. How do they lead to the production of multiple proteins from a single gene?

*11. What is RNA editing? Explain the role of guide RNAs in RNA editing.

*12. Summarize the different types of processing that can take place in pre-mRNA.

*13. What are some of the modifications in tRNA processing?

14. Describe the basic structure of ribosomes in bacterial and eukaryotic cells

*15. Explain how rRNA is processed.

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