Comprehension Questions

1. (a) What is genomics and how does structural genomics differ from functional genomics?

(b) What is comparative genomics?

2. What is the difference between a genetic map and a physical map? Which generally has higher resolution and accuracy and why?

3. What is the purpose of the dideoxynucleoside triphosphate in the dideoxy sequencing reaction?

4. What is the difference between a map-based approach to sequencing a whole genome and a whole-genome shotgun approach?

5. How are DNA fragments ordered into a contig by using restriction sites?

6. Describe the different approaches to sequencing the human genome that were taken by the international collaboration and Celera Genomics.

7. (a) What is an expressed-sequence tag (EST)?

(b) How are ESTs created?

(c) How are ESTs used in genomics studies?

8. What is a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and how are SNPs used in genomic studies?

9. How are genes recognized within genomic sequences?

*10. What are homologous sequences? What is the difference between orthologs and paralogs?

11. Describe several different methods for inferring the function of a gene by examining its DNA sequence.

12. What is a microarray and how can it be used to obtain information about gene function?

*13. Briefly outline how a mutagenesis screen is carried out.

14. Eukaryotic genomes are typically much larger than prokaryotic genomes. What accounts for the increased amount of DNA seen in eukaryotic genomes?

15. What is one consequence of differences in the G + C content of different genomes?

*16. What is horizontal gene exchange? How might it take place between different species of bacteria?

17. DNA content varies considerably among different multicellular organisms. Is this variation closely related to

the number of genes and the complexity of the organism? If not, what accounts for the differences?

*18. More than half of the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana consists of duplicated sequences. What mechanisms are thought to have been responsible for these extensive duplications?

19. The human genome does not encode substantially more protein domains than do invertebrate genomes, and yet it encodes many more proteins. How are more proteins encoded when the number of domains does not differ substantially?

20. What are some of the ethical concerns arising out of the information produced by the Human Genome Project?

0 0

Post a comment