Comprehension Questions

What three factors complicate the task of studying the inheritance of human characteristics?

Describe the features that will be exhibited in a pedigree in which a trait is segregating with each of the following modes of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, X-linked recessive, X-linked dominant, and Y-linked inheritance.

What are the two types of twins and how do they arise?

Explain how a comparison of concordance in monozygotic and dizygotic twins can be used to determine the extent to which the expression of a trait is influenced by genes or by environmental factors.

5. How are adoption studies used to separate the effects of genes and environment in the study of human characteristics?

6. What is genetic counseling?

7. Briefly define newborn screening, heterozygote screening, presymptomatic testing, and prenatal diagnosis.

8. What are the differences between amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling? What is the purpose of these two techniques?

9. What is preimplantation genetic diagnosis?

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