Comprehension Questions

* 1. List the different types of chromosome mutations and define each one.

* 2. Why do extra copies of genes sometimes cause drastic phenotypic effects?

3. Draw a pair of chromosomes as they would appear during synapsis in prophase I of meiosis in an individual heterozygous for a chromosome duplication.

4. How does a deletion cause pseudodominance?

5. What is the difference between a paracentric and a pericentric inversion?

6. How do inversions cause phenotypic effects?

7. Draw a pair of chromosomes as they would appear during synapsis in prophase I of meiosis in an individual heterozygous for a paracentric inversion.

8. Explain why recombination is suppressed in individuals heterozygous for paracentric and pericentric inversions.

* 9. How do translocations produce phenotypic effects?

10. Sketch the chromosome pairing and the different segregation patterns that can arise in an individual heterozygous for a reciprocal translocation.

11. What is a Robertsonian translocation?

12. List four major types of aneuploidy.

*13. Why are sex-chromosome aneuploids more common in humans than autosomal aneuploids?

*14. What is the difference between primary Down syndrome and familial Down syndrome? How does each arise?

*15. What is uniparental disomy and how does it arise?

16. What is mosaicism and how does it arise?

*17. What is the difference between autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy? How does each arise?

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