Comprehension Questions

* 1. Draw an RNA nucleotide and a DNA nucleotide, highlighting the differences. How is the structure of RNA similar to that of DNA? How is it different?

2. What are the major classes of cellular RNA? Where would you expect to find each class of RNA within eukaryotic cells?

* 3. What parts of DNA make up a transcription unit? Draw and label a typical transcription unit in a bacterial cell.

4. What is the substrate for RNA synthesis? How is this substrate modified and joined together to produce an RNA molecule?

5. Describe the structure of bacterial RNA polymerase.

* 6. Give the names of the three RNA polymerases found in eukaryotic cells and the types of RNA that they transcribe.

7. What are the four basic stages of transcription? Describe what happens at each stage.

* 8. Draw and label a typical bacterial promoter. Include any common consensus sequences.

9. What are the two basic types of terminators found in bacterial cells? Describe the structure of each.

10. How is the process of transcription in eukaryotic cells different from that in bacterial cells?

*11. How are promoters and enhancers similar? How are they different?

12. How can an enhancer affect the transcription of a gene that is thousands of nucleotides away?

13. Compare the roles of general transcription factors and transcriptional activator proteins.

14. What are some of the common consensus sequences found in RNA polymerase II promoters?

*15. What protein associated with a transcription factor is common to all eukaryotic promoters? What is its function in transcription?

*16. Compare and contrast transcription and replication. How are these processes similar and how are they different?

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