Comprehension Questions

* 1. How does a quantitative characteristic differ from a discontinuous characteristic?

2. Briefly explain why the relation between genotype and phenotype is frequently complex for quantitative characteristics.

* 3. Why do polygenic characteristics have many phenotypes?

* 4. Explain the relation between a population and a sample.

What characteristics should a sample have to be representative of the population?

5. What information do the mean and variance provide about a distribution?

6. How is the standard deviation related to the variance?

* 7. What information does the correlation coefficient provide about the association between two variables?

8. What is regression? How is it used?

*10. List all the components that contribute to the phenotypic variance and define each component.

*11. How do the broad-sense and narrow-sense heritabilities differ?

12. Briefly outline some of the ways that heritability can be calculated.

13. Briefly discuss common misunderstandings or misapplications of the concept of heritability.

14. Briefly explain how genes affecting a polygenic characteristic are located with the use of QTL mapping.

*15. How is the response to selection related to the narrow-sense heritability and the selection differential? What information does the response to selection provide?

16. Why does the response to selection often level off after many generations of selection?

*17. What is the difference between phenotypic and genetic correlations?

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