Differences between observed and expected ratios can arise by chance. The goodness-of-fit chi-square test can be used to evaluate whether deviations between observed and expected numbers are likely to be due to chance or to some other significant factor.
In the genetic crosses considered thus far, we have assumed that every individual with a particular genotype expresses the expected phenotype. We assumed, for example, that the genotype Rr always produces round seeds and that the genotype rr always produces wrinkled seeds. For some characters, such an assumption is incorrect: the genotype does not always produce the expected phenotype, a phenomenon termed incomplete penetrance.
Incomplete penetrance is seen in human polydactyly, the condition of having extra fingers and toes (Figure 3.16). There are several different forms of human polydactyly, but the trait is usually caused by a dominant allele. Occasionally, people possess the allele for polydactyly (as evidenced by the fact that their children inherit the polydactyly) but nevertheless have a normal number of fingers and toes. In these cases, the gene for polydactyly is not fully penetrant. Penetrance is defined as the percentage of individuals having a particular genotype that express the expected phenotype. For example, if we examined 42 people having an allele for polydactyly and found that only 38 of them were polydactylous, the penetrance would be 38/42 = 0.90 (90%).
A related concept is that of expressivity, the degree to which a character is expressed. In addition to incomplete penetrance, polydactyly exhibits variable expressivity. Some polydactylous persons possess extra fingers and toes that are fully functional, whereas others possess only a small tag of extra skin.
Incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity are due to the effects of other genes and to environmental factors that can alter or completely suppress the effect of a particular gene. A gene might encode an enzyme that produces a particular phenotype only within a limited temperature range. At higher or lower temperatures, the enzyme would not function and the phenotype would not be expressed; the allele encoding such an enzyme is therefore penetrant only within a particular temperature range. Many characters exhibit incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity,
3.16 Human polydactyly (extra digits) exhibits incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity.
(Biophoto Associates/Science Source/Photo Researchers.)
emphasizing the fact that the mere presence of a gene does not guarantee its expression.
Penetrance is the percentage of individuals having a particular genotype who express the associated phenotype. Expressivity is the degree to which a trait is expressed. Incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity result from the influence of other genes and environmental factors on the phenotype.
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