Management of spinal injury

Recognition of the presence or risk of spinal injury is essential at all levels of the health care system. The only resource needed for this is training. Included in this is the necessity to monitor neurological function at regular intervals, such as hourly, in the acute phase of injury, and this should be considered essential for all levels of care. It is increasingly recognized that patients with spinal cord injury, especially acute cervical spinal cord injury, may experience severe...

Breathing Management of respiratory distress

The ability to assess a patient for respiratory distress and adequacy of ventilation is essential at all levels of the health care system. This applies both to those initially evaluating the patient and to those who are providing definitive care. The only resources required for this function are training and a stethoscope. If no other resources are available at the level in question, it is anticipated that respiratory distress would usually constitute grounds for referral to the next highest...

Management of extremity injury

Injuries to the extremities are the primary cause of injury-related disability in many countries. These disabilities can be greatly reduced if promptly recognized and corrected. Functional disabilities due to neglected or late treatment of these injuries continue to constitute a major burden on the developing world.The ability of individuals to return to work may be compromised and they may thus become a burden on their families and communities. The recognition of major limb injuries and...