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Gender Role Conflict Related to Individual Differences

Because of these Asian cultural values of hierarchical relationships and male dominance, the Asian wife is expected to learn and to adopt her husband's culture. Her husband, given his military background, holds very similar notions of male dominance. The conflicts for the wife are numerous. There is tremendous pressure on her to acculturate. She has lost her support system back home. Her traditional gender-role socialization causes her to be subservient and unassertive. Because she does not know the English language or U.S. culture, she is even more dependent on her American military husband. He may or may not help her in her efforts to learn the culture having such cultural knowledge is a source of power for him and he may wish to continue to have control over his exotic Oriental wife (Kim, 1998, p. 312).

Migration To The Cities The Process Of Immigration

Status of the patients or research participants. This information may be unavailable due to individuals' unwillingness to disclose their status or author unfamiliarity with issues specifically related to immigrants, as contrasted with specific ethnic, groups. Even when reports indicate immigration status, they often fail to specify individuals' duration of residence in the U.S., or the extent of their English language ability, which may be critical to an understanding of their ability to utilize the health care system or the occurrence of specific diseases. Many other reports speak about immigrants as a homogeneous group or immigrants of a particular ethnicity or nationality without specifying their area of residence, despite the potential relevance of their urban, suburban, or rural residence to the issue under examination such as, for example, exposure to violence or incidence of asthma. This chapter provides an overview of key issues related to health status, health care delivery,...

Health Psychology Overview and Professional Issues

The importance of psychological processes in the experience of health and illness is being increasingly recognized. More and more evidence is accumulating for the role of behavior in current trends of morbidity and mortality Certain health behaviors reduce morbidity and mortality (Breslow & Enstrom, 1980 Broome & Llewellyn, 1995 Marks, Murray, Evans, & Willig, 2000 Matarazzo, Weiss, Herd, Miller, & Weiss, 1984 Taylor, 1986). Maes and von Veldhoven (1989), reviewing all the English language handbooks on health psychology

The Construction of Race and Ethnicity

Nonetheless, race and phenotype continue to be coupled. Historically, in the United States, the dominant white population identified skin color as the principal means for sorting people into varying locations on the social and economic hierarchy. At the outset, persons who resembled the dominant population were labeled as ''us'' while those who deviated from the ideal white image became the ''other.'' In the process, white skin was associated with what was good, and black skin with what was bad. Even today, the English language serves as a reminder of this distinction. White is associated with purity and goodness (the ''good guys'' wear white hats), and black is associated with impurity and evil (the ''bad guys'' wear black hats).

Resisting Restrictive And Costly Regulation And Manipulation

When someone alleges that the law will be interpreted as meaning exactly the opposite of what it says, warning sirens should go off in the mind. The premise of the opposition argument was that physicians capable of the highest academic performance through college and then four years or more of postgraduate education are somehow incapable of understanding the English language. It also presumes that physicians inundated with regulatory paperwork and excessive patient loads are, at large, also able to be keenly aware of legislation on Capitol Hill or elsewhere for that matter.

Role of Cultural Adaptation and Educational Attainment

Signed a study that controlled most of these confounds. Of the 14 measures used, Hispanic elderly scored poorer on 5 of the 14 measures. Surprisingly, most of these measures were nonverbal (i.e., Identities and Oddities, Benton Visual Retention Test matching (BVRT), and recognition. After obtaining these findings, the authors then grouped individuals according to three different acculturation groups. Acculturation was measured according to ease or fluidity of the English language. The three groups include adapted Hispanics (those that spoke good or very good English), a second group that was not acculturated (spoke little or no English), and a group that were native English speakers. The three groups were equal in terms of age and educational attainment. The results indicated that no differences were found between either the acculturated Hispanics or the English speakers. However, differences were noted between the non-acculturated Hispanics and the English speakers. Based on these...

Overcoming Language Barriers

A particularly challenging situation faces caregivers when persons with dementia speak a language that is different from that of the caregivers. For example, Runi, Doyle, and Redman (1999) note that persons with dementia of a non-English-speaking background (NESB) are at substantial risk for having unmet needs. They note that if English was acquired as a second language, it is often lost or impaired to a greater degree than their first language. Understimulation in terms of not taking part in activities or communicating regularly with staff is a typical concern in caring for NESB persons with dementia. Runi et al. described a case study in which a person with dementia had resorted to speaking Italian, her first language, and was exhibiting aggressive verbalizations and or repetitive verbalizations not directed toward visible persons. Music was used as an intervention, in which both English-language and Italian-language music were played. They found that disruptive vocalizations were...

Reasons For Noncompliance

Patients with poor reading skills face particular difficulty accessing the health care system, understanding treatment regimens and consent forms, and following physician instructions.28-32 Printed materials are frequently given to patients without first assessing the patient's ability to read or to read English-language materials.33 Many materials require a higher level of literacy than that of the general popula-tion.31,34 Physicians should evaluate the written documents they distribute and revise them to meet the reading level of their patients. They should also consider alternatives, such as photoessays, audiotapes, and videotapes for nonreaders or the visually impaired. Many patient materials are available in multiple languages.

Introduction to Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics is a relatively novel scientific discipline that combines several areas of research 7 . As it is also a rapidly developing field, there is currently not even general agreement on the definition of the word bioinformatics, which nonetheless has gained huge popularity as a buzzword intimately connected with the assembly and analysis of the human genome 8,9 . The definition of bioinformatics depends on the context in which the word is used. As a consequence, the English language has recently been enriched with a number of new terms (e.g., structural genomics, toxicogenomics, oncogenomics, metabolomics, proteomics, pharmacogenomics, chemogenomics see Table 1). However, a unifying feature in bioinformatics is the collection and analysis of large assemblies of biological datasets, most often depending heavily on powerful computers and development of software tools. Despite tremendous progression in the collection and annotation of sequence information at

The Romantic Authorcreatorentrepreneur Paradigm In Intellectual Property

Recent commentators have pointed out that this model suppresses the claims of the sources and audiences of such creations the intellectual commons shrinks, and what was previously free and available to all becomes commodified (Boyle, 1996). Aoki labels as 'author reasoning' the characteristic legal decisionmaking process whereby things which were once considered unownable, such as DNA or words in the English language, become viewed as unauthored, uncreated sources or facts which may then be translated as susceptible to ownership according to the degree of intervention by an author creator figure who is seen as having transformed them into an original creation (Aoki, 1993 94). Others have charted the historical connection between presentday intellectual property rights and the Romantic conception of the author in order to point out that such notions of authorship are clearly historically contingent (Boyle, 1988, Jasri, 1991, Woodmansee, 1984). Before the Romantic conception of the...

Communicable Disease

Utilization of cancer screening tests has also been found to be low among Korean immigrants. A survey of 438 Korean-American women in Maryland found that English language proficiency was associated with ever having had a mammo-gram and the proportion of lifetime spent in the U.S. was associated with having a Pap test (Juan, et al., 2000).

The Role of Language

Depending upon the nature of the assessment to be performed, different kinds and qualities of language skills may be needed. Academically oriented, largely written language skills may require 6 to 8 years of instruction and use to develop, whereas the development of the spoken word for everyday situations is much faster. These issues are of critical importance for the assessment of immigrants and their children (Geisinger, 2002 Sandoval, 1998). Some cross-cultural comparisons are made using one language for both groups, even though the language may be the second language for one of the groups. In such cases, language skills may be a confounding variable. In the United States, the issue of language often obscures comparisons of Anglos and Hispanics. Pennock-Roman (1992) demonstrated that English-language tests for admissions to higher education may not be valid for language minorities when their English-language skills are not strong. Before making many assessments, we need to...

Bullet Emboli

The most common sites of entrance for a bullet into the arterial system are the aorta and the heart. In a review of 153 cases of bullet emboli in the English-language literature, there were 100 cases of embolism to the arterial circulation and 53 to the venous.10 The source of the embolism to the arterial circulation was the thoracic aorta in 37.9 of cases, the heart in 34.4 cases, and the abdominal aorta in 15.5 cases. The sources of the emboli to the venous circulation were the vena cava in 23.5 (the inferior vena cava was 20.6 ), the iliac veins 29.4 , and the heart 17.6 . The bullets generally followed the direction of the blood flow though 14.7 of venous bullets followed a retrograde path. Although embolization usually occurs immediately following entrance of the bullet into the circulation, delays as long as 26 days have been reported.11 The site of lodgment of the bullet is predominantly the right side of the heart and the pulmonary arteries for bullets entering the venous...

Health Care Systems

Two key assumptions with respect to health care systems require clarification. The first is that health care organizations in culturally pluralistic societies can operate on a culturally monolithic desert island. This assumption is no longer tenable and is under increasing challenge. Several social, political, and economic contexts are sources of pressure for reform in Western health care systems. The first factor is the soaring costs of health care without concomitant and substantial improvements in health status. A second factor is the exclusive focus on the sick person at the expense of sociocultural and ecological determinants (social and physical environments, employment, housing, and social support) of illness behavior and well-being (Federal, Provincial, and Territorial Advisory Committee on Population Health, 1996 Vingilis, 1996). A third factor is the perceived superiority of Western medicine and continued marginalization of alternative but complementary approaches to Western...

Gallbladder Cancer

Gallbladder cancer is an uncommon malignancy with approximately 5000 new cases per year in the United States (1). Historically, clinical attitudes toward gallbladder cancer have been based in pessimism and nihilism. These sentiments are reflected in a statement by Alfred Blalock in 1924 in which he states, in malignancy of the gallbladder, when a diagnosis can be made without exploration, no operation should be performed, in as much as it only shortens the patient's life. This viewpoint gained further acceptance when a review of all cases of gallbladder cancer (n 6222) reported in the English-language literature was undertaken by Piehler and Crichlow in 1978, demonstrating a cumulative median survival of five to eight months and five-year survivorship under 5 (122). The clinical frustration spawns from the usual late presentation, lack of effective therapy, and the resultant dismal prognosis. In fact, most older series reported a median survival of two to five months for untreated...

Natural History

Given the rarity of this tumor, randomized clinical trials investigating different therapies have not been performed. However, many large series reviews have been reported and will necessarily serve as the natural history against which treatments are measured. In 1978, Piehler and Crichlow gathered data on 6222 cases of gallbladder cancer previously reported on in the English-language literature. Their results demonstrated a dismal five- to eight-month median

Case 2 Maria

At intake, Maria was administered the MMPI-2 in English because she presented using the English language. Her profile appeared to be valid, and suggested that Maria likely had a serious thought disorder with paranoid features, possibly Paranoid Schizophrenia. After several therapy sessions, the therapist's clinical impressions did not substantiate the client's profile and the MMPI-2 was readministered in Spanish. In both the Spanish and English versions, Maria reported a significant amount of distress, yet it appeared that she expressed her concerns more openly in Spanish, due to a lower K scale on the Spanish version.

W Parker Frisbie

Ecology may be defined as the ''study of the interrelationships of organisms with their environment and each other'' (Encyclopedia Britannica 1988 959). One of the first statements was that of the Greek philosopher Theophrastus, who studied the ''interrelationships between organisms and between organisms and their nonliving environment'' (Encyclopedia Britannica 1988 959). Ernest Haeckel used the term ecology in his study of plants, which was published in 1868. The term made its way into the English language with the translation of Haeckel's book in 1876. The term human ecology was first used by Robert Park and Ernest Burgess in their Introduction to the Science of Sociology (1924). For the first several decades after the term was introduced to sociologists, there was little agreement about its meaning and focus (Alihan 1938 Gettys 1940 Firey 1945). Amos Hawley's book, Human Ecology A Theory of Community Structure (1950), which to this day is the definitive exposition of the field,...

Cosmetic Labeling

Cosmetic product package labeling regulations enacted under authority of the FD&C Act and or the FPLA require that cosmetic labels bear certain fields of information that provide the consumer with proper identification and other data that will enhance the consumer's understanding of the product being purchased and facilitate the ability of the consumer to contact the manufacturer or distributor of the product, should there be a need to do so. Although the cosmetic labeling regulations at 21 CFR 701 generally require all labeling information to be written in the English language commonly understood by most American consumers, 21 CFR 701.2 (b) also provides certain accommodations in the case of articles distributed in Puerto Rico or other territories in which the predominant language is other than English. The required fields of information include the following

Treatment Protocol

It is worthwhile to administer a measurement instrument before and after treatment. With the aid of a measurement instrument, possible comorbidity can be detected and the effect of the intervention can be evaluated. Questionnaires in the English language have the advantage that they are well known in the international literature, which facilitates comparisons of international publications, and that they have been used often in research, which facilitates comparisons between results and populations. However, for local use these questionnaires have to be translated and validated again but this is recommended because of cultural differences. A simple but effective instrument to obtain measurement data is the Visual Analogue Scale. From time to time during the treatment, the woman marks a score on a sliding scale to represent the amount of progress that has been made.

Hispanic Americans

The extensive heterogeneity coupled with the definite apparent commonalities within the Hispanic population again highlight the need of our integrated approach utilizing both the etic and emic perspectives. In introducing the topic of Hispanic American mental health services, we can start by identifying the major groups covered by the generic label Hispanic Americans, and discuss their distribution in various parts of the United States. While acknowledging and reviewing the diversity among the Hispanic American population, the discussion can focus more on the larger groups such as Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban Americans, along with groups that students and trainees are most likely to encounter in their geographical region. The major cultural elements common to many Hispanic groups can then be discussed in general, along with the precautions on differences based on countries of .origin, socioeconomic considerations, and degree of acculturation to mainstream United States society,...

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