Biologics

Biological agents are the oldest of the Chemical, Biological and Radiological triad, and have been used in warfare for over 2,500 years. Biologic agents occur naturally in the environment, but many have been refined and can be made more virulent and resistant to therapy in weapons laboratories. Some bacterial toxins have also been developed for use as weapons. Most notable is botulism, which can produce death after being ingested or inhaled in minute quantities. The eradication of smallpox as...

Stephen J Traub md

Toxicology is the study of how toxins (street drugs, prescribed medications, occupational toxins, or chemical weapons) interact with living organisms. Fundamentally, toxicology is the discipline that concerns itself with the care of the poisoned patient. Not only are entire textbooks written about toxicology, but they are written about specific subdivisions of toxicology medical toxicology, environmental toxicology, regulatory toxicology, and others. A detailed discussion of the entire...

Irritant Gases

The health effects of an acute exposure to an irritant gas or vapor are dependent on the physiochemical properties of that particular gas or vapor, as well as specific host factors. The extent of exposure varies considerably and is most pronounced in subjects with preexisting airway diseases. Acid and alkaline gases such as chlorine and ammonia produce extreme alterations in pH that cause tissue damage by direct contact. Other gases produce chemical reactions that cause free radical release,...

Assessment Decontaminationand Initial Treatment Of Patients

The primary goals for emergency personnel in a hazardous materials incident include Establishment of decontamination zones see below Cessation of patient exposure Containment of the hazard to prevent further contamination Patient treatment without jeopardizing emergency personnel safety While not all chemicals pose a hazard for secondary contamination, until the risk is known, termination of exposure is best accomplished by removing the patient from the incident area and then decontaminating...

Robert E Antosia md mph

Logistics generally refers to the method of procuring, distributing, maintaining, and replacing goods, equipment, and personnel. The basic task of a logistics system is to provide essential operations support by delivering the appropriate supplies, in the quantities required, at the places and times they are needed. In reality, disaster logistics is a systems exercise involving integrated and coordinated performance from a diverse group of skilled specialists and support staff. It is both the...

Clinical Features

After an incubation period that can range from a minimum 2 days RVF to a maximum of 35 days Hantaviruses , a nonspecific clinical picture of fever, myalgia, and prostration emerges. Subsequently, devolution to florid shock and multi-system organ failure may occur. A petechial rash can also be a leading clue to the presence of a VHF. Hepatic inflammation dysfunction can be seen as well. Important distinguishing features can be used to delineate the various hemor-rhagic fever viruses. The...