The focus of this section is on cognitive processes within the learner and teacher, and it includes the development of such processes and developmental directions for future research. Developmental theory is not singled out here, because Volume 6 in this Handbook is dedicated exclusively to this topic. Prominent in this work is a focus on individual differences in intellectual processes, memory, metacognition, self-regulation, and motivation. The chapters in this section also exemplify the field of educational psychology by relating theory to instruction and factors affecting individual learners and teachers within classrooms.
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