Earthworms Ebooks Catalog
Earthworms belong to a well-defined clade, the Clitellata, which includes leeches, branchiobdellids, many aquatic and small terrestrial worms with a single cell-layered clitellum, and the earthworms, most of which have a multi-layered clitellum. However, earthworms as a group lack a defining characteristic unique to earthworms. This is because they include the Moniligastridae, a south and east Asian earthworm family, which have a single-layered clitellum and prosoporous (male genital openings in front of the female genital openings). All other earthworms have a multi-layered clitellum and male genital openings behind the female pores (opisthoporous) and are called the Crassiclitellata. As soft-bodied invertebrates, earthworms lack a fossil record, other than burrow traces that may or may not have been created by earthworms. Their phylo-genetic relationships have been a matter of controversy since the early twentieth century. Based on analysis of DNA sequence data, Jamieson et al....
Bandicoots are opportunistic and omnivorous, although the pig-footed bandicoot may have been more herbivorous. Most species obtain their food by first locating it through olfaction (and perhaps also by hearing) and then digging a conical pit to where the invertebrate or plant material is situated. The diet includes adult and larval insects (especially Coleoptera, Orthoptera, and Lepidoptera), earthworms, centipedes, seeds, bulbs, tubers, and hypogeous fungal sporo-carps. Small vertebrates such as lizards and mice are occasionally eaten. In garden areas, and in tropical rainforest, fallen fruit is eaten.
Food is mainly obtained by digging after locating food items by smell. Small pits are dug using the forefeet and the long nose. Food is extracted and deftly manipulated in the front feet. Eats earthworms, adult and larval insects, other invertebrates, tubers, bulbs, and fallen fruit.
A mated kagu pair builds a ground nest of dry leaves, eight to twelve inches in diameter, in which the female lays a single egg weighing two and a half ounces. The male and female take turns sitting on the egg for twenty-four hour stretches, one parent usually replacing the other at midday. The incubation period lasts an average of thirty-five days. The young chick has a coat of brown, downy feathers. Both parents care for the chick, and feed it with insects, spiders, and earthworms.
The soricine shrews included in the 2002 IUCN Red List often belong to very rare and endemic species with restricted distribution and low population densities. Some of the threatened species are only known from the locality of their original description. However, the major threat for the soricine shrews is environmental disturbance and pollution. Loss of forest habitats has a considerable effect on forest-dwelling species. The rate of deforestation taking place in south and Southeast Asia is an apparent reason for including several soricine species from this particular geographic region among the category of Critically Endangered. Similar threats may arise in other regions from human interference with wetlands and from freshwater pollution. Shrews are exceptionally susceptible to accumulation of heavy metals in their tissues through their diet consisting of large amounts of earthworms. Long-term persistence of DDT has also been reported in soricine shrews.
Accumulation of heavy metals in insectivorous mammals through their diet containing earthworms is extremely high, and the burden in tissues of shrews may be used as a useful indicator of environmental contamination. It is unknown whether shrews have a greater resistance to heavy metals than other mammals. Strong effects of rapid environmental change on developmental stability were also recorded in free-living populations of soricine shrews and provided a tool to monitor changes in natural environments. Shrews are becoming favorable model species in research of various issues of bio-medicine and evolutionary biology.
Nicholson and collaborators are also building databases of dose- and time-related toxic responses of earthworms to small organic molecules including fluoroanilines and fluorobiphenyls. This approach particularly exploits the sensitivity and selectivity of 19F NMR for toxin-related materials so as to elucidate metabolic pathways 46, 47 . The endogenous response is measured by 1D and 2D XH NMR combined with pattern-recognition techniques 44 . Potential novel markers in the earthworm for fluoroaniline toxicity were identified by HPLC-Fourier transform mass spectrometry and off-line XH and 13C NMR. These included decreased 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-3-fur-ansulfonate and increased inosine monophosphate 15 . This strategy illustrates the power of the combined technologies using conventional NMR and pattern-recognition methods to profile extracts of the samples according to dose and time, followed by 2D NMR and LC-NMR MS to characterize the individual analytes as biomarkers or patterns of response....
Subfossil species had even more outrageous versions of the simple finch bill. Two species of shovelbills (genus Vangulifer), had bills that were long and thin but with broad, rounded tips. Unique among honeycreepers, these may have fitted the species out for snagging insects on the wing. The gapers (genus Aidemedia) had bills with powerful muscles for opening the bill against pressure. This trait has a parallel with the meadowlark (Sturnella sp.), which uses a gaping bill to force open sod for reaching earthworms. The extinct King Kong finch (Chloridops regiskongi) had the largest known honey-creeper bill. A reporter used the name King Kong as an adjective to convey the massiveness of the bill, and the comparison worked its way into scientific nomenclature.
Any kids are fascinated by how plants, and even birds and butterflies, grow and thrive in the world just outside their front doors. So why not give children the chance to play in the dirt and get up close and personal with insects and earthworms Spending time outdoors teaches kids about science, gives them room to play and relax, and trains kids to find entertainment beyond the warm glow of the computer or TV screen.
Though the two groups broadly overlap geographically, and a number of genera cannot be assigned to either of those two major clades. Some familiar North American species belong to the Xenodontinae, including the ring-necked snakes (Di-adophis), wormsnakes (Carphophis), and mudsnakes (Farancia). Even more than the colubrines, the Xenodontinae encompass an extraordinary range of natural histories. Among the major themes are repeated invasions of aquatic, arboreal, and fos-sorial habitats, as well as specialization on any of a wide range of prey, including fishes, amphibians, earthworms, and terrestrial mollusks. A number of well-defined clades are recognized within the Xenodontinae. Among those in the South American group are the false pitvipers (Xenodon) and such related genera as the Neotropical hog-nosed snakes (Ly-strophis) and Liophis. Many members of this group feed on frogs, including such highly toxic species as toads (Bufo) and poison frogs (Dendrobatidae). The North American...
Stomach contents of wild-caught specimens contained only earthworms and humus, but captive specimens may eat earwigs as well. In captivity, this species will emerge from tunnels at night to forage on the surface. Earthworms thrown on the surface are immediately grasped and pulled back into the tunnel.
The US Environmental Protection Agency has evaluated studies of potential effects on a wide variety of non-target organisms that might be exposed to the Bt-endotoxins, e.g. birds, fish, honeybees, ladybugs, parasitic wasps, lacewings, springtails, aquatic invertebrates and earthworms. Such non-target organisms are important to a healthy ecosystem, especially the predatory, parasitic, and pollinating insects. These risk assessments demonstrated that Bt proteins expressed in transgenic plants do not exhibit detrimental effects to non-target organisms in populations exposed to the levels of endotoxin found in plant tissue. Organisms that pass soil through their digestive systems, such as earthworms, could be exposed to significant levels of Bt protein. Organisms at higher trophic levels that feed on soil feeders may, secondarily, be exposed to the toxin. High dose and continuous feeding studies on Collembola (primitive wingless insects that live off the fungi that decompose organic...
Foraging typically takes place on the ground, including nosing through leaf litter and digging beneath it. The diet primarily includes fallen fruit and a large proportion of arthropods from a wide range of groups, including beetles, ants, spiders, or-thopterans (cockroaches and crickets), centipedes, and millipedes. Also feeds regularly on earthworms.
Omnivorous, predominantly frugivorous, but little known. Birds acrobatically cling to tree boughs and trunks to tear and probe into epiphytic plant growth for invertebrates and small vertebrates. Nestlings fed a large proportion (65 ) of animals, including earthworms, insect larvae, crickets, beetles, mantids, katydids, spiders, frogs, and skinks.
The eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) eats helpful invertebrates such as earthworms, which turn and aerate the soil. (Photo by L. L. Rue, III. Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.) The eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) eats helpful invertebrates such as earthworms, which turn and aerate the soil. (Photo by L. L. Rue, III. Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.)
Insect larvae, adult aquatic invertebrates, and even small fishes. Much food is gathered from the near-water larder, including terrestrial insects, snails, earthworms, and even appreciable amounts of fungi and green plant materials. The daily intake seems to be about 5-10 of body weight. Insects, earthworms and
The blackish blindsnake feeds almost exclusively on ant brood, although other small invertebrates (e.g., earthworms, leeches) may also be eaten. Ant nests are located by following pheromone trails laid down by adult ants. As many as 1,500 or more ant larvae and pupae may be consumed in a single meal. The species generally feeds only during the spring and summer.
These turtles are primarily carnivorous, feeding on earthworms, snails, clams, crustaceans, insects, fishes, frogs and tadpoles, small reptiles, birds, mammals, and carrion of any kind. They have even been observed to attack larger prey, such as birds, as a group, as well as to feed on the ticks on the hide of rhinoceroses when the latter enter waterholes. They also occasionally feed on various parts of aquatic plants and the fruits of terrestrial species.
Mammals, mainly rodents and rabbits, are the mainstay of the diet in most places. However, a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate food is eaten including earthworms, beetles, the young of ground nesting birds, and human scraps. Lambs are found around red fox dens, but in many cases the victims are known to be sickly or stillborn. Red foxes use their ears to locate the rustle of a mouse in the grass and then launch themselves in a pounce to land on their prey. Other food items appear to picked up opportunistically as they traverse their territories at night.
Protostomes are some of the most morphologically complex, ecologically diverse, and behaviorally versatile organisms in the animal kingdom. They consist of more than one million species divided into approximately 20 phyla. Major representative phyla include the Platyhelminthes (flukes, pla-narians, and tapeworms), Nematoda (roundworms), Mollusca (chitons, clams, mussels, nautiluses, octopods, oysters, snails, slugs, squids, and tusk shells), Annelida (bristleworms, earthworms, leeches, sandworms, and tubeworms), and Arthro-poda (ants, centipedes, cockroaches, crabs, crayfish, lobsters, millipedes, scorpions, spiders, and ticks). intimately related to its body plan. Protostomes have a symmetrical body plan (e.g., planarians, earthworms, lobsters, or ants). One of the more interesting body plans is radial symmetry. Animals with radial symmetry have no front or back and take the general form of a cylinder (e.g., sea stars, and sea anemones) with various body parts connected to a main...
Star-nosed moles are active foragers day and night, either finding earthworms, insect larvae, and other invertebrates in their tunnels, or swimming to hunt aquatic invertebrates, or an occasional small fish or crustacean. This mole also forages above ground. Earthworms, insects,
Its diet includes mostly insect larvae and earthworms, but it also eats other invertebrates, including slugs and centipedes, as well as roots and seeds. Predators include hawks and owls during the rare occasions when the mole is on the surface, or digging mammals, such as foxes, and domestic cats and dogs.
Protostomes are one of the most diverse and abundant groups in the animal kingdom. Their distribution, variety, and abundance are largely the result of evolutionary adaptations to climatic changes in their respective environments. At present, they inhabit a wide range of terrestrial and marine environments. Many protostomes are familiar to most people, including spiders, earthworms, snails, mussels, and squid, to mention just a few. Their lifestyles, origins and diversity all have underlying structures and functions that depend on the interactions between abiotic (nonliving) and biotic (living) components of the environment both past and present. From the fossil record, protostomes first appeared about 600 million years ago, although researchers believe that many of the early members of this group became extinct. Those few that did survive, however, evolved and radiated, or diversified, into the variety of protostomes that biologists recognize today. Protostomes are presently...
Diet Their food includes insects, insect larvae, ants, termites, beetles, slugs, grubs, snails, millipedes, caterpillars, and earthworms. The birds sit quietly and watch for prey. If none is found, they go to another perch or fly down to the ground to forage among the leaf-litter of the forest floor.
Diet The American robin is an omnivore, feeding on fruits, berries, grass seeds, and many invertebrates including beetles, caterpillars, grasshoppers, snails, spiders, and earthworms. American robins and people The American robin is a very common and easily recognized bird, often seen pulling earthworms up from lawns and gardens. It is significant to North American people as a popular sign of spring, and was once hunted for meat in the southern United States.
Do You Want To Learn More About Green Living That Can Save You Money? Discover How To Create A Worm Farm From Scratch! Recycling has caught on with a more people as the years go by. Well, now theres another way to recycle that may seem unconventional at first, but it can save you money down the road.