to an acid. The photolithography technology is a proven production technique for integrated circuits within the electronics industry. Fluid movement through the microchannels occurs by electrokinetic forces. Microscopic versions of pumps, valves, reactors, extractors, and advanced separations systems can be created within the mirochip. For a screen application, channels would be etched into a pattern to simulate the process flow of reagent additions. For example, entrance ports and microchannels can be created for compound stock solutions and diluent. These channels would merge to form a single channel. From this point, channels supplying substrate, enzymes, or stop agents are added downstream. Areas for incubation and detection can also be added. After the reaction occurs an area of a microchannel will be used as a flow cell for spectroscopic analysis. Alternately, the chip effluent could be directed into a mass spectrometer for analysis. These systems seem particularly well suited for biochemical assays, especially if the reaction kinetics are fast.

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