References

Mechanisms of carcinogenesis and biologically based models for estimation and prediction of risk. In S Moolgavkar, D Krewski, L Zeise, E Cardis, H Moller, eds. Quantitative Estimation and Prediction of Human Cancer Risk. Lyon IARC Scientific Publications, No. 131, 1999, pp 179-237. 2. H Vainio, PM Magee, DB McGregor, AJ McMichael. Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis in Risk Identification. Lyon IARC Scientific Publications, No. 116, 1992. 3. KS Crump, DG Hoel, CH...

Kidney Cancer in Male Rats and a2Microglobulin Nephropathy

Alpha(a)-2-microglobulin (a-2mG) associated nephropathy has been evaluated as a mechanism of renal tubular cell carcinogenesis in male rats (16-18). The hypothesis supporting this mechanism is based on the finding that chemicals that induce a-2mG accumulation and renal carcinogenesis in male rats have not been shown to induce kidney tumors in animals that lack the ability to synthesize a-2mG in the liver. However, both data that are consistent and inconsistent with this hypothesis exist (16)....

Overview Of Biomarkers

As adapted from a report by the Committee on Biological Markers of the National Research Council (6), the development of disease that results from exposure to an environmental agent or other toxicant is multistage, starting with exposure, progressing to internal dose (e.g., deposited body dose), to biologically effective dose (e.g., dose at the site of toxic action), to early biological effect (e.g., at the subcellular level), to altered structure or function (e.g., subclinical changes), and...