Tomato

Keto Resource

Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Review

Get Instant Access

J. A. Labate, S. Grandillo, T. Fulton, S. Munos, A. L. Caicedo, I. Peralta, Y. Ji, R. T. Chetelat, J. W. Scott, M. J. Gonzalo, D. Francis, W. Yang, E. van der Knaap, A. M. Baldo, B. Smith-White, L. A. Mueller, J. P. Prince, N. E. Blanchard, D. B. Storey, M. R. Stevens, M. D. Robbins, J.-F. Wang, B. E. Liedl, M. A. O'Connell, J. R. Stommel, K. Aoki, Y. Iijima, A. J. Slade, S. R. Hurst, D. Loeffler, M. N. Steine, D. Vafeados, C. McGuire, C. Freeman, A. Amen, J.

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Tomato Evolution and Taxonomy 2

1.2.1 Taxonomic Placement 2

1.2.2 Phylogenetic Relationships 3

1.2.3 Character Evolution and Genetic Diversity in Wild Tomatoes 6

1.3 Domestication, Modern Breeding, and Genetic Resources 7

1.3.1 Domestication 7

1.3.2 Dispersal 8

1.3.3 Economic Importance 9

1.3.4 Germplasm Collections 10

1.3.5 Germplasm Stocks 11

1.4 Marker Development: Leveraging Public Databases and Software Tools 15

1.4.1 Markers 15

1.4.2 SSR, Indel and SNP Discovery 15

1.4.3 Application and Mapping of Markers 18

1.4.4 PCR-based Linkage Map of S. lycopersicum cv. Rio Grande x

S. pimpinellifolium LA1589 F2 Population 19

1.4.5 Future Approaches for Marker Development 20

1.5 Maps 20

1.5.1 Map Types 20

1.5.2 Maps Online 23

1.6 Comparative Mapping in the Solanaceae 28

1.6.1 Brief History of Comparative Mapping 28

1.6.2 Mapping in Solanaceous Plants 29

1.6.3 Markers and Orthology 30

1.6.4 Solanaceae Comparative Mapping: Future Prospects 33

1.7 Principles of QTL Mapping and Characterization 33

1.7.1 Principles of QTL Mapping 33

1.7.2 Stability of QTL Over Environment 34

1.7.3 QTL Characterization: Fine-mapping, Positional Cloning and Candidate Genes 34

1.8 Advanced-backcross and Introgression-line Breeding Strategies 34

1.8.1 Advanced Backcross QTL Analysis 35

1.8.2 ILs and "Exotic Libraries" for the Analysis of Quantitative Traits 36

1.8.3 QTL Fine-mapping and Cloning Using Introgression Lines ... 40

1.8.4 QTL Pyramiding 41

1.8.5 Advanced-backcross and Introgression-line Breeding:

Future Prospects 42

1.9 Viral Resistance 42

1.9.1 Alfamovirus 45

1.9.2 Begomoviruses 45

1.9.3 Cucumovirus 46

1.9.4 Curtovirus 46

1.9.5 Poleroviruses 46

1.9.6 Potexvirus 46

1.9.7 Potyvirus 47

1.9.8 Tobamovirus 47

1.9.9 Tospoviruses 48

1.10 Bacterial Resistance 48

1.10.1 Bacterial Canker 48

1.10.2 Bacterial Speck 49

1.10.3 Bacterial Spot 49

1.10.4 BacterialW ilt 49

1.11 Fungal Resistance 52

1.11.1 Alternaria Stem Canker 52

1.11.2 Anthracnose Ripe Rot 52

1.11.3 Blackmold 52

1.11.4 Corky Rot 52

1.11.5 Early Blight 54

1.11.6 Fusarium Crown and Root Rot 54

1.11.7 Fusarium Wilt 55

1.11.8 GrayLeafspot 55

1.11.9 Late Blight 55

1.11.10 LeafMold 55

1.11.11 Powdery Mildew 56

1.11.12 Verticillium Wilt 56

1.12 Insect Resistance 56

1.13 Drought or Water-Deficit Stress Resistance 57

1.13.1 Genetics and Drought Resistance Characteristics of Tomato Species 57

1.13.2 Drought-induced Changes in Gene Expression 58

1.13.3 Genetics and Salt Stress Resistance Characteristics in Tomato Species 59

1.13.4 Drought Responsive Genes 59

1.13.5 Genetic Engineering of Stress Resistance 60

1.13.6 Drought-Responsive H1 Histone 60

1.13.7 Drought or Water-Deficit Stress Resistance: Summary 61

1.14 Fruit Color and Nutritional Value 61

1.14.1 Micronutrients 62

1.14.2 Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Insoluble Solids, and Lipids.. 69

1.14.3 Carbohydrates 70

1.14.4 Insoluble Solids 70

1.14.5 Lipids 71

1.15 Fruit Quality 72

1.15.1 Gene/QTL Mapping of Fruit Quality 72

1.15.2 Fruit Quality MAS 75

1.15.3 Molecular Characterization of QTLs for Quality 76

1.15.4 Fruit Quality: Conclusions 78

1.16 Metabolomics 79

1.16.1 Metabolomics Data Collection 79

1.16.2 Metabolomics Data Analysis 80

1.16.3 Metabolomics and Molecular Breeding 83

1.17 Bioinformatics 84

1.17.1 Tomato Analyzer (http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/ vanderknaap/tomato_analyzer.htm) 84

1.17.5 MiBASE (http://www.kazusa.or.jp/jsol/microtom/ indexj.html) 84

1.18 International Tomato Genome Sequencing Proj ect 86

1.19 Reverse Genetics and TILLING1 87

1.19.1 Reverse Genetic Strategies in Tomato 87

1.19.2 Creating a TILLING Population 88

1.19.3 High-throughput Screening and Mutation Discovery 89

1.19.4 Reverse Genetics and TILLING: Conclusions 92

1.20 Genetic Engineering 93

1.21 Tomato: Future Prospects 95

References 95

2 Lettuce

2.1 Introduction 127

2.1.1 Economic Importance 128

2.1.2 Nutritional Value 128

2.1.3 Breeding Objectives 130

2.2 Genetic Maps: Intraspecific 131

2.3 Genetic Maps: Interspecific 131

2.4 QTL Mapping 134

2.5 Development of Genomic Resources 136

2.5.1 Sequence Information and EST Databases 136

2.5.2 Other Resources 136

2.5.3 Phenotypic Information 137

2.6 Future Prospects 138

References 138

3 Radish

Y. Kaneko, C. Kimizuka-Takagi, S. W. Bang, Y. Matsuzawa 141

3.1 Introduction 141

3.1.1 Origin and Distribution 141

1 TILLING is a registered trademark of Arcadia Biosciences

3.1.2 Varietal Differentiation 142

3.1.3 Karyotype 142

3.1.4 Classical Genetic Analysis 143

3.1.5 Economic Importance 143

3.1.6 Breeding Objectives 143

3.1.7 Target Traits for Seed Production 145

3.2 Application of Molecular Markers 145

3.2.1 Evolution and Phylogenetic Relationship 146

3.2.2 Identification and Evaluation of Genotypes and their Purity .. 146

3.2.3 Confirmation of Hybridity 147

3.2.4 Chromosome Identification 148

3.2.5 Development of Markers for Self-Incompatibility and Cytoplasmic Male-Sterility Genes 148

3.3 Construction of Genetic Linkage Maps 149

3.4 Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci 150

3.5 Marker-Assisted Breeding 151

3.6 Map-Based Cloning 154

3.7 Future Works 155

References 155

4 Carrot

4.1 Introduction 161

4.1.1 History of Cultivation 161

4.1.2 Carrot Biology 162

4.1.3 Taxonomy and Classification 163

4.1.4 Carrot Production and Consumer Quality 164

4.1.5 Carrot Breeding 167

4.2 Map Construction 168

4.2.1 Nuclear Linkage Maps 169

4.2.2 Evaluation of Marker Systems for Linkage Mapping 172

4.2.3 Organellar Physical Maps 172

4.3 Gene Mapping 173

4.4 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Detected 174

4.5 Marker-Assisted Germplasm Maintenance and Breeding 175

4.6 Cloned Genes 178

4.7 Future of Molecular Breeding of Carrot 180

References 181

5 Brassica rapa

M. Hirai, S. Matsumoto 185

5.1 Introduction 185

5.1.1 Origin of Brassica rapa 185

5.1.2 Vegetable Crops of B. rapa 185

5.1.3 Conventional Breeding 186

5.2 Construction of Molecular Maps 186

5.3 Comparison of Crucifer Genomes 186

5.4 Genetic Analysis and Linkage Markers of Agricultural Traits 187

5.4.1 Clubroot 187

5.4.2 White Rust 187

5.4.3 Flowering and Physiological Characters 187

5.4.4 Morphological Traits 188

5.5 Marker-Assisted Selection 188

5.6 Genome Sequencing and Map-Based Cloning 189

References 189

6 Beet

J. M. McGrath, M. Saccomani, P. Stevanato, E. Biancardi 191

6.1 Introduction 191

6.1.1 Brief History of the Crop 191

6.1.2 Botanical Description 192

6.1.3 Economic Importance 194

6.1.4 Breeding Objectives 194

6.1.5 Classical Breeding Achievements 195

6.1.6 Classical Mapping Efforts 197

6.2 Construction of Genetic Maps 198

6.3 Gene Mapping and Marker-Assisted Selection 199

6.4 Advanced Works 200

6.5 Future Scope of Works 201

References 202

7 Capsicums

7.1 Introduction 209

7.1.1 Brief History of the Crop 209

7.1.2 Taxonomy 209

7.1.3 Morphology 209

7.1.4 Karyotype, Ploidy Level and Genome Size 210

7.1.5 Economic Importance 210

7.1.6 Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value 210

7.1.7 Breeding Objectives 211

7.1.8 Classical Genetic Mapping 211

7.1.9 Classical Breeding Achievements 211

7.1.10 Limitations of Classical Endeavors and Utility of Molecular Mapping 212

7.2 Construction of Genetic Maps 212

7.2.1 Brief History of Mapping Efforts 212

7.2.2 First Generation Maps 212

7.2.3 Second Generation Maps 214

7.2.4 Integration of Molecular Markers Based on Microsatellites (SSR) 214

7.3 Gene Mapping 214

7.3.1 Disease Resistance 214

7.3.2 Fruit Traits 217

7.4 QTLs Detected 218

7.4.1 Disease Resistance 218

7.4.2 Fruit Traits 220

7.5 Marker-Assisted Breeding 221

7.6 Map-Based Cloning 222

7.7 Future Scope of Work 222

References 223

Was this article helpful?

0 0
The Ketosis Plan Diet

The Ketosis Plan Diet

Top Low Carb Internet Guru Speaks Out. An Open Letter To Anyone Who Wants To Lose Up To 20 Pounds In 30 Days The 'Low Carb' Way. 30-Day Low Carb Diet 'Ketosis Plan' has already helped scores of people lose their excess pounds and inches faster and easier than they ever thought possible. Why not find out what 30-Day Low Carb Diet 'Ketosis Plan' can do for you by trying it out for yourself.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment