Natural Dietary Supplements
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Ephedra has been used as a natural medicine for thousands of years by numerous cultures with very little concern about toxicity. Its most recent popularity is related to its purported weight loss or performance enhancing attributes. In spite of that in 2004, concerns over safety resulted in the banning of all over-the-counter (OTC) sales of ephedra-containing dietary supplements by the Food and Drug Administration. With the ban of ephedra-containing dietary supplements and severe restrictions in access to ephedrine-containing OTC products, the landscape of clinical use associated with agents of this nature has been dramatically changed forever. Interest in further clinical study will likely be severely limited.
The business of dietary supplement in the Western World has expanded from the Health Store to the pharmacy. Alternative medicine includes plant based products. Appropriate measures to ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of these either already exist or are being answered by greater legislative control by such bodies as the Food and Drug Administration of the USA and the recently created European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, based in London. In the USA, the Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act of 1994 recognised the class of phytotherapeutic agents derived from medicinal and aromatic plants. Furthermore, under public pressure, the US Congress set up an Office of Alternative Medicine and this office in 1994 assisted the filing of several Investigational New Drug (IND) applications, required for clinical trials of some Chinese herbal preparations. The significance of these applications was that each Chinese preparation involved several plants and yet was...
Echinacea is regulated as a dietary supplement in the United States (40). The Homeopathic Mother tincture is a Class C over-the-counter drug official in the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States (41), Official Compendium (1992). E. angustifolia powdered and powdered extract, E. pallida powdered and powdered extract, E. purpurea root, powdered root extract, and powdered extract have monographs for their identity, quality, and other
Follow-up of very low calorie diets reveal that patients are at increased risk of cholesterol gallstones. Low-calorie diets are more likely to be successful if a patient's food preferences are included. Certainly all of the recommended dietary allowances should be met, even if a dietary supplement is needed. During low-calorie diet therapy, educational efforts should focus on the following topics energy value of different foods food composition fats, carbohydrates (including dietary fiber), and proteins reading nutrition labels to determine caloric content and food composition new habits of purchasing (preference to low-calorie) foods food preparation and avoiding adding high-calorie ingredients during cooking (e.g., fats and oils) avoiding overconsumption of high-calorie foods (both high-fat and high-carbohydrate foods) maintain adequate water intake reducing portion sizes and limiting alcohol consumption.
Subjects were eligible for the study ifthey met the following criteria Willing to participate in the study and sign an informed consent, be a 30 years old male, have a histologically confirmed Grade II and or III PIN on biopsy serum PSA 20 ng ml, Zubrod performance status 1, adequate bone marrow, liver, and renal function. Subjects were excluded from the study if they had any of the following Underwent prior experimental therapy for chemoprevention, evidence of PCA on initial evaluation (local, regional, and or distant metastasis), active systemic viral, bacterial, or fungal infections requiring treatment, a serious concurrent illness or psychological, familial, sociological, geographical, or other concomitant conditions which did not permit adequate follow-up and compliance with the study protocol, concurrent treatment with other investigational agents, were taking finasteride or T, herbal medicine or dietary supplements for prostate health, and had a...
The generally accepted definition of a probiotic is 'a live microbial food supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance'. This definition is, however, rather limited as some probiotics are transient and do not take up residence in the intestinal tract. A better definition may be ' a microbial dietary supplement that beneficially affect the host physiology by modulating mucosal and systemic immunity, as well as improving nutritional and microbial balance of the intestinal tract' (Salminen et al 1998).
This survey did not determine the time between OTC use and first contact with the healthcare system. However, it did ascertain whether OTC use was an individual's first action after the onset of symptoms. Of the individuals reporting headache symptoms, 54 said their first course of action was to take an OTC medication (34 said their first course of action was to wait and see if the symptoms would go away, and only 4 said their first course of action was to consult a physician). For individuals with cold, cough, flu, and sore throat symptoms, the first course of action was self-treatment with an OTC product in 42 , watchful waiting in 34 , using a dietary supplement in 9 , and consulting a physician in less than 9 .
Recently USADA has received increased media attention for its role in the investigation into the existence and use by elite athletes of the designer steroid, THG. Designer steroids are an important concern for USADA. However, USADA is equally concerned about a class of anabolic substances that are readily available in the United States on the shelves of supermarkets and nutrition stores, as well available for order on thousands of internet sites. These products, marketed and sold as allegedly safe dietary supplements, contain substances, such as androstenedione and norandrostenedione and are one chemical step away from anabolic steroids. Once ingested these products are converted within the body into anabolic steroids. The availability of these products is a significant public health issue that transcends sport and places American consumers at risk. Last Thursday, the Food and Drug Administration took action against androstenedione and acknowledged that there is a serious and...
Alternative medicine has been defined as the use of various treatment modalities that are not usually used in traditional medicine, taught in medical schools, or covered by insurance companies. Terminology, however, is changing and these treatments are being incorporated more and more into traditional therapies and hence the term complimentary medicine is now used more frequently (Complimentary-Alternative Medicine CAM ). In 1991, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the office for Alternative Medicine to address the growing use of these treatments. It has been estimated that two-thirds of the American population has used some form of CAM (59). Of importance, 70 ofthose patients using CAM did not disclose this use to their physician (60). In 1998 the Alternative Medicine office changed its name to the National Center for Complimentary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Alternative therapies include things such as imagery, biofeedback, acupuncture, reiki, dietary...
Vitamin K is found in several nutritional supplements and often in generic multivitamins, and use of these products can result in warfarin resistance. For example, Ensure contains 80 g of vitamin K per 1000 kcal and Sustacal 230 g 1000 kcal. In patients who depend solely on these products for nutrition large doses of warfarin or anticoagulation with heparin may be required. If a patient changes supplements or starts ingesting regular food, the warfarin requirement will change dramatically. Patients may also be ingesting large amounts of vitamin K-containing food that can induce warfarin resistance. Even one or two days of high intake of vitamin K-rich food can dramatically lower INRs.
European medical researchers have, for several years, used ephedrine to help promote weight loss, at least in the morbidly obese (11,12), and nutritional supplements containing naturally occurring ephedra alkaloids are sold in the United States for the same purpose. Clinical trials confirm that, taken
An example from the drug-doping arena is a report on the use of 1H NMR for measuring creatine in urine samples as a biomarker for the use ofillegal dietary supplements by French athletes 41 . Creatine is not typically measured in clinical laboratories, and common methods such as LC-MS and capillary electrophoresis require much sample preparation. The detection limits by NMR were 1.31 mg L-1, and the analysis of untreated urine samples took less than 10 min. Although forensic toxicology reports are scarce, it is evident that some forensic laboratories have access to conventional NMR systems.
Despite often having lower levels of vitamin K-dependent proteins, children require more warfarin per unit of body weight than adults. In children less than one year of age, the average warfarin dose was 0.33 mg kg, while in children age 13-16 the dose was 0.09 mg kg. In addition, the use of other medicines, nutritional supplements and concurrent illness can cause the dose to vary greatly, requiring close monitoring. One suggested approach is to start with a loading dose of 0.2 mg kg with dosage adjustments based on a daily INR checks.(Table 29.2)
Case Reports of Toxicity Caused By Commercially Available Products or Traditional Uses by Various Specialty Populations
In another case, a 52-year-old woman experienced tachycardia shortly after taking a dry herbal extract of unripe C. aurantium fruit (45). The patient took no medications except for a 10-year history of thyroxine (50 g day) treatment. The woman had ingested a dietary supplement for weight loss and consumed 500 mg of C. aurantium titrated at 6 synephrine (30 mg). Later in the same day of her first dose, she experienced unrelenting tachycardia and was admitted to the emergency room. She stated that she had never experienced prolonged tachycardia in the past. She was released from the ER after the tachycardia subsided, and felt well. After approx 1 month of feeling well, the woman took another dose of the supplement. Again, later in the day after ingestion of the supplement, she experienced a new episode of prolonged tachycardia. She was seen at the same hospital and released without incident. At the time of publication, she had not taken any more of the supplement and had no reports of...
Citrus aurantium has enjoyed a rich history of uses in food, cosmetics, and medicine. Recent misuse of this product for weight loss, however, is threatening to tarnish the holistic reputation of this fruit. Manufacturers are isolating and concentrating the synephrine content from the 0.33 mg g contained in the pulp of whole fruit to 20 mg g in some dietary supplements, and over 100-fold increase to 35 mg g in extracts. With the known cardiovascular effects of synephrine, this may be creating a potentially dangerous or abuseable supplement out of what people once safely enjoyed. The use of C. aurantium for weight loss has little support in the literature, but this has not stopped producers from marketing the drug for this purpose since the void left after the ban of ephedra. The increased frequency in which case reports of toxicity have emerged since this product has started being used for weight loss should serve as a cautionary note for more vigilant monitoring of safety.
Studies in female athletes have shown no effect on body composition or muscle strength following supplementation of 500 fjg chromium picolinate daily during 6 weeks of resistance training (Livolsi et al 2001). In a clinical trial of older women a high-dose chromium picolinate supplement did not affect body composition, skeletal muscle size or maximal strength above that of resistance training alone (Campbell et al 2002). A meta-analysis of trials of dietary supplements for enhancing lean muscle mass and strength during resistance training did not support the use of chromium for this purpose (Nissen & Sharp 2002).
Overall, acute toxicity is unlikely with combination vitamin supplements unless huge amounts have been ingested. In the case of toxicity or side-effects, signs and symptoms will relate to the individual nutrient ingested. In general, gastrointestinal symptoms such as discomfort, nausea and diarrhoea are the most frequent adverse effects.
Gamma-linolenic acid may be beneficial in the prevention of migraine headache when used in combination with other nutritional supplements and as part of an overall management plan, according to an open, prospective, uncontrolled trial involving 168 migraine patients. In the study, patients took a combination of GLA and alpha-LA (1800 mg day), other vitamins, coenzymes and antioxidants, and were instructed to lower their arachidonic acid intake. They were also instructed on correct techniques of self-medication and in stress-reduction and progressive relaxation techniques. Of the 129 patients who were evaluated after 6 months, 86 reported an improvement, with 22 of the total being free from migraine, while 14 were not able to implement the self-management of progressive relaxation and stress reduction techniques. Severity and frequency of attacks were decreased in patients reporting a positive response. Significant reduction in nausea and vomiting was reported in all groups except the...
Twenty patients with various end-stage cancers were given 500 mg twice daily for 6 months. After 6 months 16 patients were still alive with a statistically significant increase in both NK function and TNF-alpha levels. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and glutathione levels were all greatly increased (See et al 2002). Although these results are interesting it is difficult to examine the direct effect of Andrographis paniculata as many other nutritional supplements were given concurrently.
Effectiveness of some drugs used to treat high blood pressure and should not be taken with other antidepressants, epinephrine and other adrenaline-type drugs, or methylphenidate. Patients should not take over-the-counter medications without checking with their doctor. For instance, amitriptyline should not be taken with Tagamet (cimetidine) or Neosynephrine. Patients taking this drug should avoid the dietary supplements St. John's wort, belladonna, henbane, and scopolia. Black tea may decrease the absorption of this drug. Patients should ingest the drug and tea at least two hours apart.
In the United States, feverfew may be marketed as a dietary supplement, but is not approved as a drug. A United States Pharmacopeia advisory panel, although recognizing that feverfew has a long history of use and lack of documented adverse effects, does not recommend its use owing to the paucity of scientific evidence of safety and efficacy. The panel encourages further research, including at least one properly designed clinical trial (4).
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