Guilt Free Desserts
Formerly important as food and hunted for its fur by aboriginal tribes, this marsupial has gained an iconic status today as a symbol of Australia's threatened indigenous wildlife. Adopted as a mascot by the Commonwealth of Australia Endangered Species Program, the species has gained wider public awareness thanks to a campaign that began in the 1980s to replace the Easter bunny with an Easter bilby. Every Easter, thousands of chocolate bilbies are sold, often with a percentage of the profits channeled back into bilby conservation.
Cocoa is among the most concentrated sources of the flavanols, catechin and epicatechin, with four times the catechin content of tea (Arts et al 1999). Chocolate also contains additional flavonoids not found in tea, with high concentrations of oligomeric procyanidins (Lazarus et al 1999). Post-harvesting and processing pro 2007 Elsevier Australia cedures can have a striking influence on the flavanol content of chocolate and cocoa (Hollenberg et al 2004). Dark chocolate has the highest total catechin content with approximately 53.5 mg 100 g, whereas milk chocolate contains approximately 1 5.9 mg 100 g (Arts et al 1999). White chocolate primarily contains cocoa butter with minimal levels of polyphenols. Cocoa also contains the methylxanthines, caffeine and theobromine, the biogenic amines phenylethylamine, phenylalanine and tyrosine (Bruinsma & Taren 1999) and the cannabinoid-like fatty acid anandanine analogs, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-linoleoylethanolamine (Di Tomaso et al 1996)....
Chocolate is purported to have a range of psychological effects, including enhanced arousal and cognitive function, stimulation of feelings of wellbeing and euphoria, as well as initiating cravings. The orosensory aspects of chocolate, including its taste, smell and texture, certainly contribute to chocolate's positive appeal. Chocolate contains large amounts of fat in the form of cocoa butter, which melts at body temperature producing a pleasurable melt-in-the-mouth experience. Chocolate also often contains large amounts of sugar and thus satisfies the seemingly innate preference for sweet, high-fat, foods (Bruinsma & Taren 1999). In addition to unique sensory properties, chocolate also contains many pharmacologically active substances. Several endogenous biogenic amines with sympathomimetic properties are found in chocolate, most notably tyramine and phenylethylamine (Hurst 1982). Phenylethylamine is an amphetamine analogue structurally related to methylenedioxymethamphetamine that...
Cocoa contains substances that protect against dental caries (Palenik et al 1977, s'Gravenmade et al 1977) and in vitro experiments have shown that monomeric polyphenols and tannins from cocoa may interfere with glucosyltransferase activity of Streptococcus mutans and reduce plaque formation (Kashket etal 1985). Similar results were reported in hamsters, with a marked caries-inhibitive effect found with a water-extract of cocoa (Stralfors 1966). Cocoa bean husk, while not used in cocoa or chocolate, demonstrates antibacterial properties attributed to its unsaturated fatty acids and antiglucosyltransferase activities attributed to epicatechin polymers, as well as being shown both in vitro and in vivo to possess significant antiplaque activity (Matsumoto et al 2004).
The results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study suggests that both milk and dark chocolate, but not white chocolate, improve cognitive function. A second double-blind study suggests that this improvement is due to the methylxanthin content of chocolate, with 11.6 g of cocoa powder producing identical improvements in cognitive function and the mood construct 'energetic arousal' as a mixture of caffeine (19 mg) and theobromine (250 mg) (Smit et al 2004). Consumption of a 65 g chocolate bar was shown to significantly increase driving accuracy and reduce collisions compared to an equicaloric snack of cheese and biscuits or no snack in a controlled trial of 12 volunteers (Smith & Rich 1998).
A key technique in behavioral approaches is self-monitoring (7), which involves writing down exactly what is eaten and what type of physical activity is performed. This record allows the patient and therapist to identify problem behaviors that might be changed. For example, the self-monitoring record may reveal that a large percentage of an individual's calories is consumed in the form of desserts, that between-meal eating constitutes a major problem, or that an individual's portion sizes are unusually large. Alternatively, the individual may consume relatively few calories but lead a very sedentary lifestyle. These different behavior patterns would lead to different targets for the behavior change intervention.
In the behavioral approach to weight control, patients are taught to restructure their home environment so that it will elicit the desired behaviors. These techniques are called stimulus control strategies (3,4). For example, patients are encouraged to refrain from purchasing high-calorie desserts, and to store all high-calorie foods in difficult-to-reach places simultaneously they are taught to buy more fruits and vegetables and to keep them readily accessible. Patients are also taught strategies for changing thoughts and emotions, which can serve as powerful cues for overeating, and strategies for dealing with social cues and social pressure to overeat.
Some species are cooperative breeders, where nonbreeding birds assist the parents with the care and protection of chicks, while in other species only parents raise their chicks. The breeding season lasts from late winter to early summer. Several breeding attempts occur each season. Nests are domed, usually placed in trees or shrubs, with some in crevices and hollows, or even on the ground. Clutches commonly include two eggs, but have been observed with as many as five. The color of the eggs comes in many forms including white, white with sparse spotting, cream or buff with widespread spotting, and chocolate. The eggs that are incubated only by the female are laid at forty-eight-hour intervals. Incubation and the independence of fledglings are both accomplished over a long period of time. Both parents, and sometimes the helpers, feed the young. Many nests succumb to predators. Bronze-cuckoos lay their eggs in some nests and kick out the young warblers. Adult survival each year is as...
Body is compressed and elongate, with minute cycloid scales on the trunk. There is a single dorsal fin with 13 spines and 10 soft rays. The pelvic fins are positioned at the thorax. The pectoral fin usually has 16 rays. Fin spines are stout and venomous. The snout is long and tubelike. Body color is predominately yellow, with a chocolate-brown forehead and snout and white spotted with brown on the preopercle and opercle and on the flank directly behind the gills. The thorax is chocolate brown, and this color extends down to the first two pelvic fin spines. The dorsal, anal, and caudal fins are yellow the pectoral and pelvic fins are white. There is some variation between individuals. Grows to at least 9.8 in (25 cm) in length.
How Prepared and Consumed Greeks and Romans used peppermint in condiments, cordials, and fruits. Europeans use it in sweet products such as desserts, candy, jams, jellies, chocolates, cordials, liqueurs, and cigarettes. In Europe, the crystallized leaves are also used as decorations in cakes and pastries. Today in the United States, peppermint is mainly used in bakery products, teas, and confectionery. In England, peppermint is used in savory products, such as sauces for roast lamb, boiled mutton, peas, potatoes, and in teas, chocolate, and vinegar. Middle Easterners use chopped peppermint in many dishes yogurt dressings, dips, salads, vegetables, grilled lamb, poultry, fish, and in teas. Dried leaves are popular in many North African and Middle Eastern cuisines including Turkish and Iranian cooking. They are used in dry blends, meat and fish marinades, and beverages. Mint tea is widely consumed by Arabic cultures.
The richest sources of the trace mineral copper in the diet are organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, whole grain breads and cereals, and chocolate. In addition to other functions, copper is involved in iron metabolism in the body and in brain function. Deficiency of copper causes anemia, with inadequate oxygen delivery to the brain and other organs. Copper deficiency also impairs brain functioning and immune system response, including changes in certain chemical receptors in the brain and lowered levels of neurotransmitters.
The clinical course of patients with nonresectable metastatic carcinoid is highly variable and largely unpredictable (1-4). Patients with high tumor burden can remain relatively asymptomatic for years, totally oblivious to their disease. Others with minimal residual (but nonresect-able) disease in the small-bowel mesentery can suffer all the symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome without having disease in the liver (vide supra). However, the majority of patients with carcinoid metastatic to the liver will exhibit at least some, if not all of the symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome (1-4). These symptoms include facial and sometimes torso flushing which may progress to rosacea and scleroderma (5), and may include the cutaneous manifestations of pellagra (5). Other symptoms include diarrhea, breathlessness, and wheezing and may be precipitated by certain foods including alcohol and chocolate. The exact hormonal mechanism of these symptoms remains unknown.
Pectin is extracted from citrus peel, apple pomace, sugar beet, and other plant materials. Structurally it comprises polygalacturonic acid and its methyl ester, and a number of neutral sugars 15 . It is widely used in food applications (e.g., jams and jellies, confectionery, beverages, desserts) and in some pharmaceutical applications. It is susceptible to enzyme reactions, and the following three pectolytic enzymes are well known polygalacturonase (cleaving the galacturonan backbone), pectin meth-ylesterase (hydrolyzing the methyl ester), and pectin lyase (which catalyzes the scission of the backbone 16 .
Adverse effects orthostatic hypotension, agitation, tremor, seizures, muscle spasms, urinary retention, paresthesias, jaundice, tyramine-induced hypertensive crisis (e.g., some cheeses, chianti wine, chocolate, liver, fava beans, avocados) exaggerated response to indirect-acting sympathomimetics interaction with opioids (may cause excitatory or depressive reactions excitatory reaction thought to be central serotonergic overactivity manifesting as hypertension, hypotension, tachycardia, diaphoresis, hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, seizures, coma meperidine has been associated with fetal excitatory reactions) inhibition of hepatic enzymes
Carbohydrates include starches, naturally occurring and refined sugars, and dietary fiber. Foods rich in starches and dietary fiber include grain products like breads, rice, pasta and cereals, especially whole-grain products fruits and vegetables, especially starchy vegetables like potatoes. Foods rich in refined sugars include cakes, cookies, desserts, candy, and soft drinks.
Physical characteristics Purple-bearded bee-eaters are easily identified from other bee-eaters because they have a purple-blue head, throat, and breast. They are colorful birds, with dark green upper-parts, wings, and tail streamers dark brown lower belly green and russet (reddish brown) tail feathers blackish forehead and crown (the top of a bird's head) chocolate on the sides and back of the neck. The long, broad throat feathers hang over the breast, and the neck and nape feathers form a coat that is sleeked down or fluffed out. When flying, they look mostly green, with broad rounded wings, a longish tail, and short-to medium tail streamers. Purple-bearded bee-eaters are 9.8 to 10.2 inches (25 to 26 centimeters) long without
Physical characteristics Spotted nutcrackers are named for their appearance and the way they use their large bills to take the shells off of nuts. There are white spots and streaks in their feathers. The spotted nutcracker's brown body plumage is the color of chocolate. The lower part of the body is white. The wing and tail feathers are a shiny black. There are white tips at the ends of the wings and feathers. The spotted nutcracker's bill, legs, and feet are black.
Physical characteristics The cactus wren measures in length from about 7.2 to 8.5 inches (18 to 21.6 centimeters) and is the largest species of wren in North America. In color, the bird is a chocolate brown on top with a plain cap. Its back is streaked very prominently in black and white, and the wings, which can spread to a length of 10.7 inches (over 27 centimeters), are barred with buff and black tones. The tail feathers vary between having blackish brown and gray-brown bars. The outer tail feathers are very noticeably barred black and white. The underparts of the bird are buff-white and are spotted heavily with black, especially on the chest. Eyes are reddish brown with a dull black bill that has a paler base. Its legs are a pinkish brown.
Dark chocolate, but not white chocolate, was observed to significantly improve endothelial and platelet function in healthy smokers, with increased flow-mediated dilatation, increased total antioxidant status and reduced shear stress dependent platelet function seen 2-8 hours after ingestion (Hermann et al 2006). Dark chocolate has also been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and decrease blood pressure in healthy people (Grassi et al 2005a). Similar results were obtained in a RCT using 100 g of dark chocolate containing approximately 500 mg polyphenols which was consumed daily for 1 5 days. Chocolate was found to decrease DBP by -11.9 7.7 mmHg, decrease serum LDL-cholesterol from 3.4 to 3.0 mmol L, improve flow-mediated dilation, and reduce insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity in patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension (Grassi et al 2005b). Similarly, a study of male soccer players found that consumption of 105 g of flavanol-containing milk chocolate...
It was therefore tempting to determine why or how a rather consistent sequence length of chromosome material could accidentally be deleted from the whole chromosome as would, to use a comparison, a chocolate square easily be split off from the whole plate As a result of this search, '' hot spots'' prone or predisposed to repeated breakage accidents were characterized by studying the breakpoint regions in YAC clones (Kuwano et al., 1992), the identification of restriction fragments positive for the same genomic DNA probes (Amos-Landgraf et al., 1999), or by FISH analyses in which more than one hybridizing signal was detected after hybridization with the same probe (Carrozzo et al., 1997).
Cooperative breeding is common in the family, and has been studied in several thornbills and scrubwrens. Mostly, though, acanthizids breed as pairs with some being assisted by a third or fourth bird. The breeding season is typically late winter to early summer and several attempts are made each season. Nests are domed, often with a clear hood above the entrance, and those of gerygones are pendant, attached to foliage. Although usually placed in trees or shrubs, crannies and hollows are also used and some species nest on the ground. The most common clutch is two eggs, though up to five eggs have been recorded. Egg color ranges from white in the rock-warbler, and white with sparse spotting in Acanthiza and Gery-gone, to cream or buff with heavier spotting in many genera to plain chocolate in redthroat and speckled warblers (Chthon-icola sagittatus). Eggs are laid at 48-hour intervals and are incubated by the female alone. Incubation periods and dependency of the fledglings are long....
There have been several reports of ricin being used as a weapon both at home and abroad. A ricin-containing bomb, code-named compound W, was developed and tested by the United States, in collaboration with Britain, before World War I. Ricin was used in injection form to assassinate Georgi Markov, a Bulgarian defector, in 1978. In 1994 and 1995, four men from a tax protest group were convicted of possessing ricin as a biological weapon. Plans linked to al Qaeda to produce ricin were found in Afghanistan in November 2001. In October 2003 a package containing ricin and a threatening note were sent to a South Carolina post office. In May and June of 2004, ground castor beans were found in jars of Gerber Banana Yogurt Dessert in California.
Endometriosis within the ovary may take the form of an endometriotic cyst. These can be single or multiple and are often bilateral. They generally have a thick fibrous wall which is yellow to brown in colour with a ragged internal surface. The cyst contents are typically brown fluid which may be inspissated, giving rise to the term chocolate cyst of the ovary. Rarely, tumours can arise within ovarian endometriotic cysts and these usually take the form of a thickened area within the wall. Endometriosis within the ovary may also be non-cystic, appearing as small red, blue or brown spots. Often, endometriotic foci are not apparent to the naked eye.
DNA-based detection methods are primarily based on multiplying a specific (for example genetically modified) DNA with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Two short pieces of synthetic DNA (called primers) are needed, each complementary to one end of the DNA to be multiplied. During the reaction, copies of the target DNA sequence are made and subsequently visualised. No copy is detected if the target DNA is not present. It is possible to detect DNA in fresh plant tissue, but also in highly processed foods like cakes or chocolate. The PCR results can be quantified giving an estimation of the amount of GM component in the sample tested.
In another randomised trial of 30 healthy volunteers 100 mg of dark chocolate, but not white or milk chocolate, were found to significantly inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation (Innes et al 2003). The alteration of eicosanoid synthesis has been suggested as a plausible mechanism by which procyanidins can decrease platelet activation, and has been observed in an in vitro study of the effect of procyanidin on aortic endothelial cells, as well as in a randomised, blinded, crossover study of high procyanidin chocolate (4.0 mg g) (Schramm et al 2001).
Consider, for example, the ways in which biomedicine directs attention primarily to the level of the individual by encouraging each woman to develop high levels of fear about her own risk of contracting breast cancer. In the name of health promotion, women are repeatedly warned of the risk each faces of developing this disease. Many women are easily frightened into a mind-set where they are preoccupied with monitoring their bodies for threatening signs of change (or where they guiltily avoid checking their breasts for fear of discovering some suspicious lump) if a lump is detected, they are primed to quickly seek expert advice and biomedical interventions. This focus on individual responsibility and surveillance occurs as part of a much larger public health campaign aimed at self-regulation not only are women asked to pay worried and regular attention to their breasts, they are also advised to change lifelong eating habits, develop healthy exercise programs, learn stress management...
It is believed that chocolate is a trigger for migraine, yet there is inconsistent support for this. In one small double-blind, parallel-group study of 12 patients who believed that chocolate could provoke their attacks, chocolate ingestion was more likely than placebo to trigger a typical migraine episode, with the median time until the onset of the attack of 22 hours (Gibb et al 1991). Three other double-blind placebo-controlled trials suggest that chocolate on its own rarely precipitates migraine (Marcus et al 1997, Moffett et al 1974), with the results of one trial suggesting that chocolate was no more likely to provoke headache than was carob in typical migraine, tension-type, or combined headache sufferers (Marcus et al 1997). There is no evidence that chocolate contributes to acne (Ravenscroft 2005).
Magnesium deficiency may contribute to the symptomology of PMS, which may be improved by chocolate or cocoa powder, which contain a high concentration of magnesium ( 100 mg 100 g in chocolate and 520 mg 100 g in cocoa powder). There is also some evidence to suggest that serotonin levels are low premenstrually, and it is possible that premenstrual chocolate cravings are the body's attempt to raise CNS concentrations of serotonin (Bruinsma &Taren 1999).
Cocoa is produced through a process of fermenting the seeds from the pods of the cacao tree Theobroma cacao. The beans are dried, roasted, and crushed to produce high-fat, unsweetened chocolate, which is also called baking chocolate. This intermediate is pressed and alkalised to form cocoa powder, which is then homogenised with sugar and cocoa butter, and sometimes milk, to ultimately form chocolate. Dark chocolate generally contains more than 50 cocoa, whereas mass-produced milk chocolate only contains around 10 cocoa. White chocolate is based on cocoa butter (or theobroma oil) without the cocoa solids. Although many different types of cocoa beans grow throughout the world, three varieties of cocoa beans are mainly used to make chocolate products (a) criollo (meaning 'native'), distributed to the north and west of the Andes, (b) forastero (meaning 'foreign'), found mainly in the Amazon basin, and (c) trinitario (meaning 'sent from heaven') (Bruinsma &Taren 1999).
Proanthocyanidins are dimers, oligomers, and polymers of flavan-3-ols and are formed by enzymatic or chemical condensation. These so-called condensed tannins contribute to astringent tastes in fruits (e.g., grapes, peaches, apples, pears, berries etc.), beverages (e.g., wine, cider, tea, beer etc.) and chocolate. At a lower degree of polymerization they are colorless and bitter to taste, but with greater polymerization the taste becomes astringent and the color yellow to brown. Proanthocyanidins purely consisting of catechin and epicatechin monomers are called procyanidins, which are the most common type of proanthocyanidins. Less abundant are the prodelphinidins, which include both epicatechin and gallocatechin monomers.
Protein, selected vegetables, bread, and desserts, all low in vitamin, and (3) a diet composed of regular foods low in vitamin A. The vitamin A depletion time ranged from 359 to 771 d, with a slow decrease in plasma retinol noted over the depletion period. All men received 18-19 mg of iron daily, but mild anemia occurred which was associated with the drop in plasma retinol. Plasma retinol concentrations of 1.05, 0.70-1.05, and
Head and body length (19-28 cm), forearm 6-7.5 in (15-19 cm), wingspan up to 3.3 ft (1 m) weight 1.1-2.2 lb (500-1,000 g). The fur on the head is black, the mantle ranges from chocolate brown to reddish brown, and white hairs frequently appear over the body, including the underside.
Used in ancient times by the Phoenicians, Egyptians, and Arabs as a perfume and for mummification, and later, by Romans and Greeks to scent bath water. Lavender got its name from the Latin word 'lavare,' meaning 'to wash.' As part of wedding bouquets, it sends a message of good luck to the bride and groom. It is a favorite with the French who not only use its oil for perfumery and cures but for culinary purposes as well. A member of the mint family, its dried flowers make up the potpourri used to mask unpleasant odors and for perfuming many household items. Though it is used mainly in the pharmaceutical industry and in a few culinary applications such as in sweet-based products and herbes Provence. There is great potential in using its flavor in many savory and sweet applications including soups, sauces, dressings, desserts, confectionary, and ice creams. How Prepared and Consumed lavender is not commonly used as a spice but the French enjoy it in many dishes such as aioli,...
How Prepared and Consumed nutmeg loses its flavor quickly when ground, so generally it is grated just before cooking or baking. Also, to retain its flavor, nutmeg is added toward the end of cooking. It complements chocolate, fruits, custards, vanilla, coconut milk, lemongrass, and kari leaves. Europeans use it in mashed potatoes, rice dishes, pastas, soups, rice puddings, pies, eggnog, biscuits, and milk-based drinks. Nutmeg provides an intense, sweet, spicy aroma to pastries, cakes, sweet rolls, banana bread, pumpkin pies and apple pies, ice cream, chocolate, and lemon desserts. Nutmeg is also used in cheese fondues, and it enhances savory products such as vegetable stews, bechamel sauce, tomato sauce, processed meats, and pork patties.
LES resting pressure exhibits a significant diurnal variation. During daytime, LES pressure is lower in comparison to the postprandial and nighttime periods 1 . Additionally, various substances such as hormones, drugs and foods influence the LES basal pressure. Substances that increase LES pressure include gastrin, motilin, substance P, alfa-adrenergic antagonists, beta-adrenergic agonists, protein, histamine, me-toclopramide and prostaglandin F2a. Substances that decrease LES basal pressure include secretin, chole-cystokinin, glucagon, somatostatin, progesterone, alfa-adrenergic agonists, beta-adrenergic antagonists, fat, chocolate, ethanol, peppermint, theophylline, prosta-glandin E2, serotonin, morphine, calcium channel blockers, diazepam and barbiturates 2 .
Lemongrass derives its name from its characteristic scent and appearance. It is widely used in Southeast Asian (including Thai, Malaysian, Singaporean, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Indonesian as well as Sri Lankan) cooking - soups, curries, sauces, and desserts. Vietnamese, and Indonesian cooking. Malay and Thai curry pastes and Nonya laksas frequently contain lemongrass. It provides a wonderful aroma to nasi lemak, a coconut-milk-based rice dish from Malaysia, enhances Vietnamese soups and meat marinades, and balances the fiery chilies and galangal in Indonesian bumbu pastes. In Southeast Asia, lemongrass is added to many local desserts that have rice flour, gula melaka (dark palm sugar), and coconut milk.
The largest and heaviest member of the genus, with the longest horns. Head and body length 67 in (171 cm), height 43 in (110 cm), and weight 286 lb (130 kg). Horns are scimitarlike, swept back and laterally compressed, with prominent transverse ridges on the front surface and reach 60 in (148 cm). Horns of females are much shorter. Males have a long beard. Color is very variable, from light gray to dark chocolate brown.
Giufeng, Hannah, Paul, Ajay, and Joey sit in the skeletal imaging unit at the end of the day and are having a good time. As they dig into their quiche to order, Gregory opens the door. His face lights up as he notices the little crowd Apparently I came right on time, he roars and grabs the last piece of the quiche. OK, who's ready for dessert Come on, Joey, let's hear it He munches and whips a few films onto the lightbox (Fig. 8.83). Who can help Joey Jot down your diagnoses. You'll find the answers at the end of the book (see p. 342).
There is considerable variation in coat coloration between subspecies. Fur ranges from off-white gray through reddish orange to chocolate dorsally and from white through cream to pale orange ventrally. There is relatively little sexual dimorphism in body size, with males being only slightly bigger than females. Head and body length 19.5 in (49.0 cm) for males and 20 in (49.5 cm) for females tail length 28.5 in (71.0 cm) for males and 28.5 in (71.0 cm) for females. Body mass 14 lb 8 oz (6.59 kg) for males and 14lb 4 oz (6.47 kg) for females.
Green and large brown cardamoms are commonly used in Asian Indian cooking. In India, the green pods are used whole, or its seeds are ground and added during cooking or sprinkled on savory dishes to give a sweet aroma. Green cardamom is an essential ingredient in Indian sweets (halwa), puddings, yogurt (shrikand), custards (kesari), and ice creams. Green cardamom gives the distinct flavor to India's famous creamy kormas and Mogul-style biryanis. It is also an essential ingredient in Southeast Asian curries, pilafs, and desserts and other foods that have an Indian
Lemon verbena is a popular spice for European teas, fruit drinks, and desserts. It is indigenous to South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards. Verbena, a Latin word meaning leafy branch, was originally used as a perfume. Though not widely used in culinary applications, it adds a refreshing taste to many cold dishes. How Prepared and Consumed it is commonly used by Europeans to flavor fruit-based drinks, fruit salad dressings, fish soups, marinades, puddings, jams, and desserts. It does not tend to lose its flavor during cooking. It pairs well with fruits, vanilla, and seafood dishes.
How Prepared and Consumed lemon balm is used as a garnish or is added to salads to give a lemony flavor. It goes well in teas, vinegars, stewed fruits, jellies, puddings, and custards. It is also added to fish, poultry, eggs, salads, and soups. Lemon balm pairs well with fresh fruits, so it is a common flavoring in fruit drinks, iced teas, and fruit-based desserts. It can be made into a pesto or a sauce with olive oil, garlic, fruits, and almonds.
In many studies of cognitive, language, and motor development, infants or children participate in tasks designed to examine children's abilities and knowledge using habituation dishabituation paradigms in infancy (Baillargeon, 1994) and actual cognitive motor tasks (Campos, Bertenthal, & Ker-moian, 1992 Newcombe & Huttenlocher, 1992 Werker, 1989). For example, in work on theory of mind, researchers have used tasks such as the false belief task. In this task, children see a scene where a character, Maxi, puts chocolate in a drawer, and while Maxi is out of the room another person moves the chocolate. Children are asked where Maxi will look for the chocolate to determine at what age children can understand the difference between what they believe to be true and what others believe (Wimmer & Perner, 1983). These types of studies rarely use a multimethod approach, instead relying primarily on the experimental tasks to assess a specified cognitive ability.
Medium, large, and extra large respondents answer either yes or no manufactured parts either pass or do not pass quality control or dessert choice is sorbet, tiramisu, chocolate mousse, or apple tart. In many analyses, discrete variables are the grouping variables (treatment group vs. control) for a main analysis such as analysis of variance (ANOVA) or logistic regression. Assumptions for discrete variables relate to the frequency of cases in the various categories. Problems arise when there are too few cases in some of the categories, as discussed later.
Forelegs, and mid-back are a greenish brown the rump is a dark red to bright fire orange (this may not be visible unless the rump hairs are erect). There is sometimes a crest of longer black hairs between the shoulders and up to the top of the head. The belly varies from shades of muddy to pure orange, sometimes with a white midline. Populations on Caribbean islands tend to be smaller than those on the mainland and are less colorful, being dark brown with long chocolate-colored hairs forming a cape over the shoulders.
Head and body length, 5.5-6 in (14-15.3 cm) forearm length, 3.2-3.6 in (8.2-9.2 cm) no tail weight, 2.9-5 oz (83-142 g). Pelage is chocolate to dark brown, ventrum is lighter. Differs from all other fruit bats in its dental structure. The molars have 5-6 cusps, the lower canines have three cusps, and the incisors are directed forward.
- Dietary modifications - avoid caffeine,fatty foods, chocolate, spicy foods, peppermint, onions, garlic, tomatoes,and citrus products 50 . However, this life style modification is being recommended less often given effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors in treating GERD. Other lifestyle changes include weight loss and decreased alcohol intake. Several foods contribute to reflux symptoms, and should be avoided. Foods with an acidic pH can both lower the LES pressure and increase gastric acid secretion, and can precipitate symptoms 30 . Caffeine irritates the esophageal mucosa and increases acid secretion, while fatty foods delay gastric emptying 29 . Additional culprits include chocolate, peppermint, spicy foods, and onions.
Cocoa and chocolate are nutritious foods that contribute to caloric as well as trace mineral intake (Steinberg et al 2003). Milk chocolate has a relatively low glycaemic index of approximately 40 (Foster-Powell et al 2002) and this is attributed to the fat in chocolate slowing gastric emptying and thus the rate of subsequent digestion and absorption. The glycaemic effect of milk chocolate can be further reduced by replacing the sucrose with fructose or isomalt (Gee et al 1991). Foods containing cocoa have been shown to lead to a greater postprandial insulin secretion in healthy young adults than foods with alternative flavourings, despite having a similar glycaemic index. It is suggested that specific insulinogenic amino acids or greater cephalic phase insulin release may explain this finding, although the clinical implications are uncertain (Miller et al 1995). Milk chocolate has also been shown to be a cheap, effective and palatable form of fatty meal for producing gall bladder...
How Prepared and Consumed in the Mediterranean, the berries were initially used to flavor wine but are now more commonly used in desserts, liqueurs, and sweet dishes. The leaves are used in stews, roast meats, stuffings, salads, and meat ragouts. The leaves are used to wrap wild game or roast pork before cooking.
How Prepared and Consumed the early Romans used anise to flavor a special cake called mustaceum that was served as a dessert to aid digestion. They also mixed anise with vinegar and honey and used the mixture as a tonic to soothe sore throats. This spice tends to be used in sweet foods in Europe, while in Asia, anise is combined with pungent, spicy ingredients for curries and savory applications. Anise goes well with fruits, sugar, fennel, wine, and cinnamon. It is a popular spice in Chinese cooking. Anise leaves and stalk can garnish fruit salads and are sometimes added to fish soups and cream sauces of Europe. They are roasted or sauteed in oil with other spices to enhance stewed vegetables, roasted meats, curries, and tomato sauces.
How Prepared and Consumed rosemary is a very popular spice in the Mediterranean region. It is used by Europeans in roast chicken, lamb, or veal, pot roasts, stews, potatoes, stuffings, marinades, vinegars, soup stocks, fruit-based desserts, breads, cold beverages, and sausages. Italians commonly use it with wine, honey, garlic, or chile peppers on grilled or roasted lamb, goat, veal, fish, shellfish, and rabbit dishes. French add it to quatre epices to flavor slow-cooked lamb and vegetable dishes. Rosemary pairs well with olive oil, lemon, cinnamon, clove, garlic, lamb, pork, chicken, tomato- and cream-based sauces, pizzas, and grilled vegetables.
How Prepared and Consumed the Egyptians mixed poppy seeds with honey as a dessert for their pharaohs, the Turks and Germans made a bread with poppy seeds and flour, and the ancient Indians mixed it with sugarcane juice for a confection. The paste is used in desserts and sauces in Turkey and in the Mogul cooking of northern India. Poppy seeds are roasted and ground to a paste that forms the basis of many Turkish dishes.
Azo-PCB into two separate azoxy-PCB derivatives, which have significantly greater antitumor activity than PCB or azo-PCB 90,91 . Once activated, PCB alkylates DNA at the O6 position of guanine 92 . In addition, PCB can induce DNA strand breakage and inhibit DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. PCB has further pharmacological properties, including activity as a monoamine oxidase-inhibitor and a disulfiram-like effect 8,21 . Potential interactions (i.e., acute hypertension) can occur if PCB is taken concomitantly with sympathomimetic drugs, antihis-tamines, tricyclic antidepressants, and food, high in tyramine content (e.g., wine, beer, cheese, chocolate, bananas, and yogurt) 93 . Due to the disulfiram-like effect, alcohol should be avoided while taking PCB, or severe gastrointestinal distress will develop. Although water soluble, PCB and its metabolites readily cross the blood-brain barrier, with rapid equilibration between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.
6.7-7.5 in (17-19 cm) female 1.1-1.6 oz (31-45 g), male 1.5-2.1 oz (43-60 g). Breeding male chocolate brown with white forehead, white patch in wing conspicuous in flight. Heavy black bill. White on forehead variable, absent in non-breeding plumage. Female has brown upperparts, underparts white heavily streaked with brown. Heavy yellowish bill. Juvenile like female, more rufous above and buffy below. Bill dull brown.
The Caribs, Mayans, and other Native Americans dyed their bodies with annatto oil to protect against the sun, thus giving rise to the term redskin by the early European settlers in the Americas. Aztecs used annatto seeds to intensify the color of their chocolate drink. This practice of coloring traveled to Europe, where annatto is now used to give a deep yellow color to butter and cheese. Often called saffron by Puerto Ricans, this spice was introduced to India by the Portuguese and to the Philippines by the Spanish.
Making Chocolate 101
If you love chocolate then you can’t miss this opportunity to... Discover How to Make Homemade Chocolate! Do you love gourmet chocolate? Most people do! Fine chocolates are one of life’s greatest pleasures. Kings and princes have for centuries coveted chocolate. Did you know that chocolate used to be one of the expensive items in the world, almost as precious as gold? It’s true!