Over the history of the healing arts, there has been an evolution of theories regarding the root causes of mental illness. Early writings from such ancient civilizations as those of Greece, Rome, India, and Egypt focused on demonic possession as the cause. This concept eventually disappeared only to resurface again in the Middle Ages
No matter how good the doctor, or how sound the medical advice, patients have great difficulty in making lifestyle changes. The diabetic fights a war against the glucose monitor. The dieter has to avoid the demons of fast food. When everyone faces a daily battle for health, how much can a seven-minute consultation with the GP help
Astroglial cells in the CNS have the highest density of gap junctions (on a molecular level, astrocytes predominantly express Cx43, Cx30 and Cx26) and hence the highest degree of intercellular coupling. On average, a pair of astrocytes in the grey matter is connected by 230 gap junctions. Indeed, injection of relatively small fluorescent molecules (e.g. Lucifer yellow, m.w. 450-500 Da, or Alexa dyes with m.w. 450 Da) into a single astrocyte in brain tissue results in staining of about 50-100 neighbouring astroglial cells. Yet the networks formed by gap junctions are not absolutely ubiquitous and the degree of coupling varies considerably between different brain regions. For example, almost all cortical astrocytes are integrated into the syncytium, whereas in the optic nerve the degree of coupling reaches 80 per cent and in hippocampus it is much lower, being around 50 per cent.
Cellar spider (Pholcus phalangioides) 2. Egyptian giant solpugid (Galeodes arabs) 3. Zebra spider (Salticus scenicus) 4. Agastoschizomus lucifer 5. Eukoenenia draco 6. Atypus affinis 7. Spruce-fir moss spider (Microhexura montivaga) 8. Harvestman (Phalangium opilio). (Illustration by Bruce Worden)
Association studies (LD mapping) measure differences in the frequency of genetic variants between unrelated affected individuals (cases) and controls. These studies are premised on the hypothesis that common genetic variants underlie susceptibility to common diseases. Risch and Merikangas (1996) demonstrated that linkage approaches were only likely to be feasible for genotypic relative risks greater than four. Effects of this magnitude are unlikely for most variants influencing complex diseases so that association approaches using dense marker maps (assuming high LD between marker and disease allele) should have greater power. In reality, the power of association approaches is compromised by incomplete LD between the marker (or tested candidate variant) and the disease variant and also by differences in allele frequency between the marker and disease variants (Abel and Muller-Myhsok, 1998 Zondervan and Cardon, 2004). Power can be increased by employing ''enriched'' case series, for...
However not all studies could confirm these findings. A prospective, controlled trial could demon Subsequently in a new prospective, randomised trial in 231 patients Kuipers himself could not confirm findings of progression of atrophic gastritis, same as other authors 46 - 49 . However he could demonstrate that corpus gastritis progressed on long term omeprazole treatment if Helicobacter pylori had not been eradicated 50 .
Some of the incidents in which members of my family lost control of themselves were exciting to a young boy. I remember the time when an inebriated aunt cavorted on our front lawn in the nude during the wee hours ofthe morning. On another occasion, a great aunt was sitting in a rocking chair by a burning fireplace and disposed of herself by rocking into the fire. For the most part, however, when a family member started behaving irrationally, it was due either to old demon Rum, frustration and anger, or a combination of these. In such a state the person would yell, break things, run around the house, and eventually doze off. I knew enough to stay out of the way when someone was in such a fix, and things soon returned to normal.
Medicine has always recognized the importance of the patient's confiding relationship with the physician, as enshrined in the Hippocratic oath of ancient Greece. This non-specific psychological aspect of treatment is especially important in psychiatry. Through the years, more specific psychological approaches have been conceptualized, ranging from medieval notions of the 'casting out of demons' in mad people to the 'animal magnetism' of Mesmer in the nineteenth century.
We all know what cities are or at least we think we do. However, it is more likely that each of our personal experiences has shaped what we think of when we discuss cities and that each of us has a different image of city in our own head. We may be in good company. Saul Bellow, the novelist and Nobel Prize laureate, in discussing how Americans think of New York City, suggested That is perhaps like asking how Scotsmen feel about the Loch Ness monster. It is our legendary phenomenon, our great thing, our world-famous impossibility . . . New York is stirring, insupportable, agitated, ungovernable, demonic. No single individual can judge it adequately (New York Times, 1970). Indeed, cities can defeat definition and challenge the imagination. Cities are elegant, sophisticated places. Think of Piccadilly Circus in London, the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, or the Copacabana in Rio De Janeiro. But cities are also dense, teeming, and dangerous places. Think of the squatter colonies of Lagos and...
In Europe, along with inadequate treatment of the mentally ill. Demons or foul spirits were believed to attach themselves to individuals and make them depressed ( poor-spirited ) or mad. The word mad became an early synonym for psychosis. Unfortunately, the possessed included people with seizure disorders as well as others suffering from what are now known to be medical disorders. Few genuinely helpful treatments were available to relieve the suffering of the mentally ill.
The clue to modern technology was the displacement of the organic and the living by the artificial and mechanical. In the past, the irrational and demonic aspects of life had invaded spheres where they did not belong. It was a step forward to discover that bacteria, not evil brownies, were responsible for curdling milk and that an air-cooled motor was more effective than a witch's broomstick for rapid long-distance transportation (Mumford, 1963).
Ketoconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent that inhibits both testicular and adrenal androgen production.142,143 It produces a rapid fall in serum T to castrate levels144,145 and a marked fall in androstenedione and DHEA sulfate con-centrations.146 Optimal suppression of adrenal androgens occurs at a dose of 400 milligrams three times daily, but a difference in cancer response between this dose level and 200 milligrams three times per day has not been demon-strated.147 Ketoconazole in patients who have progressed despite previous castration or CAB has been reported to induce a response rate of more than 50 .148,149 However, it can be accompanied by significant side effects, commonly including nausea and abdominal bloating, fatigue, liver function abnormalities, skin changes, and gynecomastia.147,150 Gastrointestinal side effects are a common cause of cessation of therapy and noncompliance.151 Rarer but more serious side effects include adrenal crisis and acute confusional...
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