Psychological Functioning In People With Intellectual Disabilities Mental Illness And Dementia

The definitions of'intellectual disabilities' and 'mental illness' continue to be debated. For the moment there is agreement that intellectual disabilities should be defined as a developmental difficulty involving significant impairments of intellectual and social functioning adaptive behaviour. However there are debates about the degree to which all areas of social functioning need to be impaired (American Association on Mental Retardation, 1992 British Psychological Society, 2001). The term...

Biological Factors

Biological and biosocial risks are also involved in persistently delinquent and particularly aggressive adolescents (Raine, 1997 Rowe, 1994). Genetic factors play a significant role in differences in temperament and cognitive functions (Plomin, 1994). Biological dispositions for criminal behaviour can also emerge prenatally through alcohol abuse and smoking during pregnancy, perinatally through birth complications or post-natally through deprivations in emotional care, stimulation, and...

Changing Ones State Of Consciousness A Motivated

This chapter argues that people generally use drugs (legal and illegal) on purpose, because they wish to, because it makes them feel good or better, rather than because they are forced to do so by the pharmacology of the drugs they choose to take. People, it is argued, use drugs to make the world an easier place to live in, to assist coping with a painful mental state, for pure fun, to help with a physical infirmity, and so forth. Taking drugs is a motivated act people do it to achieve certain...

Conclusionsthe Way Forward

What emerges from this review, of previously disparate literature, is the clear message that work-related stress represents a huge problem for both employer and employee. Evidence shows us that it is now the second largest occupational health problem in the UK, after back pain (Smith et al., 2000). In addition to the detrimental health effects on the individual, stress has a financial and economic impact on the employer through illness of their employees, poor productivity and so on. We have...

Development and Change

A further complication to establishing the A v C equations is that the way a person commits a crime, and indeed the characteristics of a person, will change over time even if there is a background of consistencies. However, if the basis of these changes can be understood then they can be used to enhance the inference process. In essence, the following five forms of change have been identified. 1. Responsiveness. One important reason for differences between a criminal's actions on two different...

Drug Courts

Drug courts evolved out of earlier unsuccessful, often fragmented, efforts to link drug offenders with treatment services. There are over 1000 drug courts in the planning and implementation phases in the United States and beyond (National Drug Court Institute, 2001). They are 'dedicated courtrooms that provide judicially-monitored treatment, drug testing and other services to drug-involved offenders' (Belenko, 1998, p. 4). These courts seek to craft custom-designed sentences for drug offenders...

Matrimonial Disputes

How do we understand the impact of divorce upon children Wallerstein, Corbin and Lewis (1988, p. 197) state For divorce, as we have fully recognised, is not a single circumscribed event, but a multistage process of radically changing family relationships. This process begins in the failing marriage, sometimes many years prior to the marital breakdown, may include one or more separations within the marriage, and extend over years following the decisive separation and the legal divorce. They go...

Multiproblem Milieu

Problems in the family climate and parenting behaviour interact with more objective and demographic family risks. These are, for example, poverty, lower socio-economic class, early and single motherhood, parental divorce, alcoholism, and criminal record. Taken individually none of these factors explains much variance (Hawkins et al., 1998 Lipsey and Derzon, 1998). However, their accumulation and interaction with other risks constitutes a multi-problem milieu of high risk for delinquency...

Occupational Culture

Organisational and occupational psychologists have begun to examine corporate culture in order to look at success and failure in business practice (Payne, 1991). In a change environment, organisations need time to manage and absorb the change. This requires clear direction from management, good communication and senior staff keeping in touch with grass roots. Callan (cited in Brown and Campbell, 1994) notes that police organisations can use the concept of stress to blame an individual's...

Partnership and Adult Lifestyle

If the delinquent behaviour persists into adulthood, this may indicate an antisocial personality disorder or the more narrowly defined psychopathy (Hare, 1995, 2001). In these cases, deviant behaviour is very hard to modify (Losel, 1998). Such chronic delinquents often have difficulties in forming stable intimate relations or they chose partners that have similar problems (Quinton et al., 1993). Although most criminal careers fade out after the age of 40, other difficulties such as alcoholism,...

Pathways Of Delinquent Development

One of the best-proven criminological results is the 'age curve' of delinquent behaviour (Blumstein, Farrington and Moitra, 1985 Loeber, Farrington and Waschbusch, 1998). In relation to the population as a whole, young people show a disproportionately much greater level of delinquency. The incidence and prevalence rates of offending rise strongly in early adolescence and peak between ages 16 and 20 (depending on the respective kind of crimes). From early adulthood onwards, the rates of...

Prevention Of Delinquency

Home Office (the British government department responsible for the criminal justice system) research shows that one in two males and one in three females admit to having committed an offence (Audit Commission, 1999). More strikingly in self-report studies, only 2-4 of juveniles claim never to have committed an offence (cited in Baldry and Winkel, 2001, p. 35). Given the growing rate at which juveniles appear to be committing crime of an increasingly serious nature, a substantial body of...

Psychosocial Interventions Into Delinquent Development

Whereas protective factors refer to 'natural' turning points in the development of delinquent behaviour, similar processes can result from systematic psychosocial interventions. Until the 1980s, there was a widespread view that positive effects of offender treatment or rehabilitation programmes could not yet be demonstrated (e.g. Lipton, Martinson and Wilks, 1975). However, during the 1990s this 'nothing works' doctrine was overcome by a more differentiated and constructive perspective of 'what...

Risk and Inaction

When we think about a risk we tend to assume that a decision was taken. We think of action. The patient was given an injection even though there was a risk of harmful side effects. The risk may be justified because the likelihood and or degree of harm was assessed as low, particularly in comparison with the likelihood and or degree of benefits. Additionally, and or alternatively, the quantity and quality of resources that were available to manage the risks, once the decision to act was taken,...

So Should it be Psychiatry Psychology and

Psychiatrists, in contrast with psychologists (although they have overlapping interests in physiology and neurology), undertake a medical education and have a medical qualification. Medical education, largely because of its duration and consequent cost, is broadly perceived as a 'professional education'. It is undertaken with a view to becoming a practitioner. In that regard there is a similarity with the study of law. In the United States law is a post-graduate degree. In the United Kingdom,...

Social Information Processing

Experiences of aggression in the family, the peer group, the mass media, and other social contexts enhance the development of schemes of social information processing that encourage antisocial behaviour (Crick and Dodge, 1994 Huesmann, 1997 Losel, Bliesener and Bender, in press). According to Crick and Dodge (1994), aggressive youngsters show specific tendencies in the (a) encoding of cues, (b) interpretation of cues, (c) clarification of goals, (d) response access and construction, (e)...

Substance Dependence

Persons who have become dependent on any of a range of substances may share several of the following experiences (1) tolerance (needing more to become intoxicated, or not getting as intoxicated with the same amount) (3) consuming more, and for a longer time, than intended (4) failed attempts or persistent desire to minimize consumption (5) increased time spent in obtaining or recovering from the substance in question (6) giving up social, occupational, or recreational activities and (7)...

The Bayesian Perspective

The use of probability analysis, and especially Bayesian analysis, to evaluate evidence and the inferences to which the evidence leads, has been discussed sporadically for decades (Kaplan, 1968 Finkelstein and Fairley, 1970 Lempert, 1977 Kaye, 1988a Robertson and Vignaux, 1995), and has become one of the centerpieces of the new evidence scholarship. Bayes' theorem is a basic principle of logic that indicates how a rational evaluator should adjust a subjective probability assessment in light of...

The Effects Of The Law On Set And Setting

There is a developing literature on drug use and misuse from the standpoint of attribution theory. Some of the earliest classic studies in this area were carried out by Eiser and colleagues (e.g. Eiser, Sutton and Wober, 1977, 1978 Eiser and Sutton, 1977 Eiser, 1982) with samples of smokers. Several of these studies showed that belief that one was 'addicted' to smoking was associated with a reduced likelihood of making an attempt to quit and a lowered probability of success if the attempt was...

The Hollywood Effect

Public awareness of the contributions that psychologists can make to the investigation of crimes largely grew out of the general fascination with serial killers. These vile and determined murderers have become the stuff of urban myths. They are the mainstay of fictional crime drama and are guaranteed to steal the headlines if they break into fact. They seem to epitomise the essence of evil and to symbolise the darkest corners of the psyche. With such a load resting on the images of people who...

The Logic Of Classification

Much has been written on the logic underlying the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. The illegality which surrounds the sale and use of certain specified substances is based on assumptions about their dangerousness to the health of the user, particularly the likelihood that the user will become 'addicted', and the desire to protect society as a whole from these effects. Fears that drugs threaten to undermine Western society have been voiced, and serve as the justification for 'the war on drugs' on both...

The Role Of The Judge In Specialized Courts

A common feature of specialized courts is the problem-solving strategy in which the judge occupies a central role in a team process (Fritzler and Simon, 2000b). Strong and cohesive judicial leadership is essential to the success of court programs (Harrell et al., 2000). The judge represents a respected authority figure and has responsibility for all legal and treatment-related actions undertaken. Many see the judge's most important contribution as a case manager at the center of the treatment...

Training

Noted Restorative Justice expert Mark Umbreidt has identified a series of 'basic characteristics' that should be possessed by persons considered to serve as mediators These include good communication skills, particularly deep listening skills, which require patience and a high tolerance for silence problem-solving and negotiation skills the ability to exercise appropriate leadership good organizational skills commitment to the philosophy of Restorative Justice and techniques of nonviolent...

Models of Differentiation

The examination of the salience of offence actions indicates that the consideration of any action in isolation from the others that may co-occur with it can be misleading. Any single action may be so common across offences or so ambiguous in its significance that its use as a basis for investigative inferences may suggest distinctions between offenders that are unimportant. Models of differentiation therefore need to have foundations in an understanding of the processes that give rise to...

Bullying Harassment at Work and Stress

While there is no legal framework in place dealing specifically with bullying at work, we do have legislation that deals with sexual or racial harassment. Bullying at work can be linked to sexual or racial harassment, or indeed a person's disability, so the victim could claim under the Sex Discrimination Act 1975, Race Relation Act 1996 or Disability Discrimination Act 1995. There appears to be no reason why a victim of overwork, and thereby suffering from a stress-related illness as in the...

The Behaviour of a Liar

Researchers have examined a variety of different non-verbal behaviours, including gaze aversion (looking away from the conversation partner), smiling, illustrators (hand and arm movements that accompany speech and illustrate it), self-manipulations (touching or scratching body or face, playing with own hair, playing with objects), subtle movements of hands and fingers, speech rate, pauses in speech, speech latency (period between question being asked and answer being given), speech fillers...

Downward Departure

As befits the specific emphasis of this chapter, a particularly illustrative model for exploring the limitations imposed on prospects for Restorative Justice concerns the Guidelines' treatment of mental health issues, addressing both the offender and the victim of the offense. Tellingly, the Guidelines only consider mental health factors in the context of a departure from the applicable guideline range. Addressing offender mental health issues first, 'diminished capacity' provides an...

What Constitutes Capacity to Consent to Sexual Relationships

Precisely what constitutes capacity to consent to sexual activity is unclear in many jurisdictions, even though the definition of capacity is crucial in establishing a balance between a proper empowerment to exercise sexual rights and effective protection from abuse. Clearly, the higher the requirement for knowledge and understanding, the better protection from abuse but the more that people with a 'mental disorder' may be prevented from exercising their sexual rights. In most European...