Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders are characterized by an imbalance of the dopaminergic system resulting from or consequently affecting glutaminergic, GABA, and serotonergic pathway transmission, with genetic, environmental, and developmental components.72 GPCRs play a major role in the symptomatic treatment of schizophrenia and form the basis for the only available drug treatment, but these drugs unfortunately have no demonstrated abilities to affect disease progression. Most of our knowledge about biochemical processes underlying these disorders comes from compounds found serendipitously to be therapeutically effective in humans.

Treatment of schizophrenia is in part a detective story spanning over 50 years (Figure 7.1), during which researchers found that currently available drugs exhibit a broad range of receptor interactions that also produce a range of undesired side

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